West Virginia University

Extension Service

August 2001

Dr. John F. Baniecki, Extension Specialist in Plant Pathology/Entomology,
Pest Management Program

Resistance Management Essential with New Pesticides

 Since developing a conventional pesticide is a long and expensive process, product managers as well as some labels specify how to use the materials in a manner that would discourage resistance. In ornamentals, for instance, spinosad, fenpyroximate, abamectin, bifenazate, and chlorfenapyr are all recently registered insecticide/miticides.

For spinosad (ConserveŽ), the current label stipulates applying no more than 10 times in a year’s time. The new label will limit that number to six, regardless of crop or pest. SePRO actively promotes the rotation of different chemical families with different modes of action with regard to their new miticide AkariŽ (fenpyroximate). Users of AvidŽ (abamectin) should limit the number of applications in a row before switching to another chemistry. Tank-mix as a secondary tactic, but do not replace alternations. The FloramiteŽ (bifenazate) label requires rotation with two alternate chemistries and restricts to two applications per crop per year. Chlorfenapyr (PylonŽ) should be used two to three times, and then switch to another chemistry. Ultra-low volume applications are good for adults, while high-volume applications are more efficacious on other stages.

The same rationale holds true for fungicides as well. Make sure to rotate the strobilurins (such as azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin) with more commonly used fungicides such as copper (Phyton-27) or potassium bicarbonate (KaligreenŽ). (Ornamental Outlook, July 2001).

More Than 3,300 Images Of More Than 800 Forest Insects, Diseases, Plants, Wildlife, And Management Practices Are Available At http://www.ForestryImages.org.  

Multiple levels of jpeg format images are downloadable and may be copied and used for any non-profit, educational purpose with appropriate credit and copyright notice. Although most images are North American in nature, the system also contains images of organisms that are "Non-U.S. Natives," or are considered to be "U.S. Invasive." The database is fully searchable. (G. Keith Douce, David J. Moorhead and Charles T. Bargeron, UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences & Warnell School of Forest Resources)

 President Bush On Wednesday Endorsed The Idea Of Creating A Permanent Position In The Cabinet For A Secretary Of Environmental Protection

 An introduced bill would rename the EPA the Department of Environmental Protection and elevate the administrator to a cabinet level post.

Congressional lawmakers have tried for more than a dozen years to have the EPA put into the Cabinet. The measure typically has failed because of the attachment of controversial provisions and pet projects. In 1994, for example, the House voted not to consider the bill unless members could put provisions on it that would limit the agency's authority.

The new designation would not change EPA's responsibility, but it would put the Agency on equal footing with other cabinet members. In Washington, political clout makes a tremendous difference. In the current situation for example, Cabinet members can often stifle EPA activities simply by refusing to cooperate. As an Agency rather than a Department, EPA frequently lacks the authority or influence to make Departments cooperate. Bush's father, former President Bush, supported the idea of an Environmental Department in 1990 when he said changing the EPA to an Environment Department with Cabinet status would "help influence the world's environmental policies." The United States is one of the few developed nations that does not designate their environmental agency as a minister or cabinet position.

Look on the web for more information about HR 2438 (http://thomas.loc.gov). (AP, 7-12-01) (Thanks to Greg Storey)

 June 27, 2001 -  EPA Proposed To Cancel Or Modify Registrations For 94 Products Containing The Pesticide Chlorpyrifos

These revisions follow the June 2000 agreement between EPA and the registrants. (I am still upset that users had very little participation in the agreement.) The agreement calls for a complete phase-out of:

 Monsanto Hopes To Introduce Corn That Has Been Genetically Engineered To Control Corn Rootworm

Rootworm control currently entails application of soil insecticides to millions of corn acres. The company is currently testing the product under an EPA Experimental Use Permit. Full registration could be granted by the 2002 growing season.

Monsanto has indicated that this type of product has the potential to displace traditionally more risky pesticide products used to control corn rootworm, such as terbufos, tefluthrin, and chlorpyrifos. Monsanto proposed that an Interim Insect Resistance Management Plan might be reasonable given the estimated level of market penetration they expect in the first two to three years following commercial launch of their product. If this is true, selection pressure for the development of corn rootworm resistance to Bt would be lower than if there was a full scale commercial launch over millions of corn acres. Monsanto is conducting or funding research regarding a number of areas that are critical to the development of a sustainable long-term insect resistance management strategy, e.g., dose, disperal.  However, this research will take at least two to four years to complete.

(OPMP Newest News, 7-12-01)

House Of Representatives Has Begun To Discuss A School IPM Amendment Passed By The Senate

The chairman of a house panel expressed concern that the amendment (part of a larger education bill) would divert school resources from education into unnecessary record keeping and distribution of technical information to parents. Other panel members said the amendment might actually increase risks to children's health because of pest transmission of diseases.

Additionally, no funds are yet specified for implementation of the amendment; it could result in significant additional expenditures for schools that would undermine state enforcement of other federal pesticide requirements.

According to a pesticide activist group, the amendment will inform parents about pesticide use and risks posed by pesticides. It is also needed because of a 1999 General Accounting Office report showing 2,300 cases of pesticide-induced poisoning in schools, and inadequate data on school pesticide exposures.

List Identifies Pesticides That Are Likely To Face Reregistration Activity In Fiscal Year 2002 (Oct. 1. 2001 - Sept. 30, 2002)

These decisions may take the form of REDS, IREDS, or TREDS. Due to the dynamic nature of the review process, the Agency may identify needs for additional data, or new issues may surface, resulting in changed priorities during the year. Also, any uncompleted FY 2001 candidate pesticides will automatically become FY 2002. You can find a list of the 2001 RED/IRED/TRED candidates in previous editions of GPNIN. If you see a chemical listed that is important to your industry, get involved as soon as possible. Do not wait. Collect information about how the pesticide is used, including amounts, timing, key pests controlled, etc. Relay this information to EPA and to the pesticide registrant.

REDs (Reregistration Eligibility Decisions)

When EPA completes the review and risk management decision for a pesticide that is subject to reregistration (that is, one initially registered before November 1984), the Agency generally issues a Reregistration Eligibility Decision or RED document. The RED summarizes the risk assessment conclusions and outlines any risk reduction measures necessary for the pesticide to continue to be registered in the United States.

Benomyl (voluntary cancellation)
Sodium acifluorfen

In addition to the RED candidates above, about 25 organophosphate pesticide Interim REDs may become final REDs in FY 2002, after the cumulative risks of the OPs have been considered.

IREDs (Interim Reregistration Eligibility Decisions)

EPA issues an IRED for a pesticide that is undergoing reregistration, requires a reregistration eligibility decision, and also must be included in a cumulative assessment under FQPA. The IRED, issued after completing the individual pesticide's risk assessment, may include taking risk reduction measures- for example, reducing risks to workers or eliminating uses that the registrant no longer wishes to maintain to gain the benefits of these changes before the final RED can be issued following the cumulative assessment.


• Carbaryl
• Carbofuran

 Other pesticides

* Atrazine

 TR-EDs (Reports on FQPA Tolerance Reassessment Progress and Interim Risk Management Decisions)

EPA issues a TRED for a pesticide that requires tolerance reassessment decisions but does not require a reregistration eligibility decision at present because:

1. the pesticide was initially registered after November 1, 1984, and by law is not included within the scope of the reregistration program;
2. EPA completed a RED for the pesticide before FQPA was enacted on August 3, 1996;

3 .the pesticide is not registered for use in the United States, but tolerances are established that allow crops treated with the pesticide to be imported from other countries.

Like IREDS, some TREDs will not become final until EPA considers the cumulative risks of all the pesticides in the cumulative group.


• Chlorpropham

 Others Pesticides

  Diquat dibromide
  Fenbutatin oxide
  Inorganic bromides, from fumigation with Methyl Bromide
  Inorganic bromides, from soil treatment with Methyl Bromide
  Oxadyl (voluntary cancellation)
  Proponic acid

 You can find more information at www.epa.gov/pesticides

Helping you put knowledge to work

The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture and West Virginia counties cooperating. Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution.