WVU Extension Service: The Orchard Monitor: Committed to the Integration of Orchard Management Practices
March 19, 2007

Upcoming Events Grower Meeting Sponsors WV Agricultural Business License Spray Bulletin


Plant Pathology



April 3, 6:00 p.m. - Tree Fruit Grower Twilight Dinner and Meeting at the WVU Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, Kearneysville, W. Va.  Extension Specialists will discuss new pest management tools, and early-season insect and disease management strategies. For more information contact the WVU KTFREC at 304-876-6353.

April 5, 7:00 p.m. - Spring In-depth Fruit Meeting at Virginia Tech's Alson Smith Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Winchester, Va.  The agenda will include seasonal updates by VA Tech Extension Specialists and other topics to be determined. For more information contact the Frederick County Extension Office at 540-665-5699, or email Josh Marvel at jmarvel@vt.edu.


The following fruit industry support companies and representatives have contributed to a Grower Meeting Fund to cover expenses at fruit schools and grower meetings.  Please let them know that you appreciate their support as we do. 

Adams County Nursery, Inc. - Phil Baugher
Arden Equipment Repair, Inc. - LeRoy Shade
Arysta LifeScience - Alan Kurtz
BASF - Gar Thomas
Bayer CropScience - Rick Love
CBC (America) Corp. - Greg Stamm
Cerexagri-Nisso - John Miller
Chemtura USA Corporation - Raymond Choban
DuPont Crop Protection - Dave McAuliffe
Dow AgroSciences - Patti Schurr
Durand-Wayland, Inc. - Ron Shrum
Gowan Company - David Pieczarka
Knouse Foods Coop., Inc. - Dave Cox
Syngenta Crop Protection, Inc. - Chris Munsterman
UAP - Larry Dell
Winchester Equipment Co. - Doug Rinker


I'm willing to bet that filing state and federal income taxes is not your favorite thing to do.  For most individuals, the process consists of gathering basic financial documents, such as W-2s and 1099's to complete 1040 forms.  For those of you who operate your own business, things are more complicated.  There are numerous receipts and records to keep throughout the year, resulting in additional forms for exemptions.

Before you started your business, did you check to make sure you had the proper license?  In West Virginia all businesses are required to obtain a business registration certificate from the West Virginia State Tax Department before engaging in any business activity.  This business registration certificate is renewable once every two years on or before July 1st and the fee is $30 per location.  Operating a business without a license is a serious offense and can be subject to a fine of $100.00 per day for each day a business operates without properly registering.

Effective July 1, 1989, anyone claiming any exemption by use of the exemption certificate (which excludes you from paying state sales tax), is required to register with the Tax Department.  Even non-profit groups and charities must register in order to purchase products without paying state taxes.

Prior to July 1, 1989, the Tax Department did not require persons producing agricultural products to hold a business license.  Since that time all agricultural producers are required to hold a WV Business License but are not required to pay for it.

A WV Agricultural Business License allows a farmer to purchase tangible personal property or taxable services without paying state sales or use taxes.  Farmers may purchase feed, seed, fertilizer, repairs to a tractor, etc., without paying tax.  Purchasing building materials to construct permanent buildings are taxable, but nails and fencing are not because they are considered permanent improvements.  Only farmers who sell over $1000 of products annually are eligible to hold an agricultural business license and use the tax exemption.

As of July 1, 1990, agricultural producers who sell their own livestock, poultry, or other farm products have not been required to collect sales tax if they are not engaged in making other retail sales.  This also applies to livestock sold at public sales such as a calf pool or a livestock auction market.  However, farmers must maintain adequate records to support the exempt status of their sales.

If a farmer purchases livestock, poultry, or other farm products for resale, sales tax must be collected unless the purchaser the farmer sold the animal or product to also holds a properly completed exemption certificate.

If you have questions or would like more information about taxes and operating a business in West Virginia, contact the WV State Tax Department at 1-800-982-8297 or www.state.wv.us/taxdiv/.  To register a business, an "Application for Business Registration" (Form WV/BRT APP) must be completed and submitted (http://www.state.wv.us/taxrev/uploads/busapp.pdf).  (Prepared by Georgy Plaugher, Tucker County Extension Agent).


The 2007 Virginia/West Virginia/Maryland  Spray Bulletin For Commercial Tree Fruit Growers may be picked up at the WVU KTFREC or obtained by mail for $9.00 each.  A check (payable to West Virginia University) should be sent to the WVU KTFREC, PO Box 609, Kearneysville, WV 25430-0609.


Six new products, four of which are listed in the 2007 Spray Bulletin for the first time, have become available for arthropod pest management in tree fruits. The two products not listed were registered after the Spray Bulletin went to press last fall. 

Two new insecticides are pyrethroids. Battalion (deltamethrin) is a 0.2EC from Arysta LifeScience that is registered for the control of over 20 foliage and fruit-feeding insects on apple and pear.  It is rated good or excellent against all pests, except fair for rosy and spirea (green) aphids.  Application rate is 7.0-14.1 fl oz per acre (varies with pest) with a maximum of 26.9 fl oz per acre per season.  Battalion has a 12 hour REI and 21 day PHI, and is recommended for prebloom use only.  Baythroid XL (cyfluthrin) is a 1EC from Bayer CropScience registered for the control of numerous pests on apple, pear and stone fruits.  It is rated good or excellent against all pests, except fair to good for spirea (green) aphids and poor for green peach aphids.  Application rate is 1.4-2.8 fl oz per acre (varies with pest), with a maximum of 2.8 fl oz per acre per season on pome fruits and 5.6 fl oz per acre per season on stone fruits.  Baythroid has a 12 hour REI and 7 day PHI.  It is recommended for use during the prebloom period on pome fruits and through petal fall on stone fruits.  Use of either of the above two pyrethroids after bloom on pome fruits or after petal fall on stone fruits (Baythroid) is more likely to cause outbreaks of mites and other secondary pests such as woolly apple aphids. 

Dimilin (diflubenzuron) is a 2L insect growth regulator from Chemtura Corporation that is registered on pear for the control of pear psylla, codling moth, and pear rust mite. It inhibits chitin synthesis (disrupts molting) and is effective against immature pest stages and to eggs laid on treated surfaces. Application rate is 40-48 fl oz per acre for pear psylla and 12-16 fl oz per acre for codling moth, with a maximum of 4 applications and 64 fl oz per acre per season. Dimilin has a 12 hour REI and 14 day PHI. It is rated excellent for pear psylla control, and recommended for application in combination with oil during the dormant to white bud stages. 

Beleaf (flonicamid) is a pyridine carboxamide from FMC Corporation that is registered on all pome and stone fruits for the control of aphids and tarnished plant bug. It functions as a potassium channel blocker and acts through ingestion to inhibit feeding, resulting in starvation. There is also some translaminar and systemic movement of the product into treated plant surfaces. Beleaf is not yet rated or listed in the Spray Bulletin. Formulated as a 50SG, the application rate for up to 7 days control ranges from 1.2-2.3 oz per acre for aphids and 1.2-1.7 oz per acre for tarnished plant bug. Up to 14 days of control can be achieved with rates of 1.7-2.8 oz per acre for aphids and 2.6-2.8 oz per acre for tarnished plant bug. The low rate of Beleaf should be used in combination with another product for tarnished plant bug control, whereas the high rate will only provide suppression of this pest. A maximum of 3 applications and 8.4 oz per acre per season is permitted. Beleaf has a 12 hour REI, and a 14 day (stone fruits) and 21 day (pome fruits) PHI. 

Proclaim (emamectin benzoate) from Syngenta is registered for insect control on pome fruit (apple and pear).  In our area, Proclaim would have excellent activity against spotted tentiform leafminer and various leafroller species, but only provides suppression of codling moth, oriental fruit moth and pear psylla.  It acts by interfering with the neurotransmitters in insects, which results in a loss of cell function and disruption of nerve impulses.  Primary activity is through ingestion, with limited contact activity for a short period after application.  Formulated as a 5SG, the application rate is 0.8-1.2 oz per 100 gal dilute and 3.2-4.8 oz per acre concentrate, with a maximum of 14.4 oz per acre per season.  Recommended use on apple is from 2nd-4th cover and 7th-8th cover, with applications initiated at the beginning of leafroller egg hatch to target small larvae.  Proclaim should be applied in a minimum of 40 gal of water per acre in combination with a horticultural spray oil or a nonionic surfactant (do not use a sticker/binder type adjuvant).  It is not compatible with Bravo Weather Stik or Dithane Rainshield because of the sticker/binder type adjuvant in these materials. Proclaim has a 48 hour REI and 14 day PHI. 

Portal (fenpyroximate) from Nichino America, Inc. contains the same active ingredient, in the same formulation (5EC) as Fujimite, which has been registered on apple and pear for the control of mites, white apple leafhopper and pear psylla. Portal, which is not listed in the 2007 Spray Bulletin, will replace Fujimite in Eastern markets and be sold at a cheaper price. It acts by blocking cellular respiration, is effective against all stages by contact, and inhibits molting of immature stages. Application rate is 2 pints per acre, with a maximum of 1 application per season. Portal has a 12 hour REI and 14 day PHI.

Pear psylla adult Pear psylla adults overwinter in or near pear orchards.  When daytime temperatures exceed 50F, adults return to pear trees, mate and begin laying eggs (pale cream to yellow-orange colored) in crevices on fruit spurs.  The use of oil during the dormant to white bud stage delays egg-laying because females do not like to lay eggs on oily surfaces.  Oil application shortens the length of the egg-laying period, resulting in a population with a more uniform age structure which makes management easier.  Oil can be used from dormant to the white bud stage, but the rate should be gradually reduced from 3% (dormant) to 2% (green cluster bud) to 1% (white bud).  An effective strategy is to make two applications of oil at 2% each, the first at dormant to bud swell and the second at the green cluster bud stage.  An insecticide to kill adults should be combined with oil, especially with the second of two oil sprays.  A pyrethroid (Asana, Ambush, Battalion, Baythroid, Danitol, Decis, Pounce, Proaxis, Warrior) is a good option to combine with oil.  Actara, Assail, Calypso, Esteem, or Dimilin are excellent options at green cluster bud and white bud for prebloom psylla control. Three prebloom applications (dormant-green tip, green cluster bud and white bud) of Surround have also provided very good control of overwintering adults.  Surround should not be tank-mixed with oil. Pear psylla eggs

Pheromone traps should be installed at this time for monitoring of redbanded leafroller, and the beginning of April for monitoring of oriental fruit moth.


Diseases of concern for the next two weeks: Apples: fire blight, apple scab; Stone fruits: leaf curl (covered in the previous newsletter).

Fire blight bacteria overwinter in cankers, often at the ends of pruning cuts where blight strikes were cut in the previous season. A good way to reduce the risk of a severe fire blight outbreak is to make a late dormant application (no later than 1/4 inch green on fresh-market fruit) of a copper-containing material (i.e. Bordeaux mixture, C-O-C-S, Kocide, Tenn Cop 5E, just to name a few) that acts to kill a large percentage of the bacteria on the plant surface (and provides some early-season protection against apple scab). Although this spray does not eliminate the possibility that fire blight could become epidemic this year, in some years it may reduce considerably the amount of inoculum available for blossom infections. The effectiveness of the treatment may depend on how much rain we receive in the pre-bloom period. This dormant application is recommended where fire blight was present last year and on young trees of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gala, Fuji, York, Jonathan, and Rome Beauty (whether fire blight was present last year or not), and on any cultivar on M.9, Mark, and M.26 rootstocks.

Given that the bacterium moves easily from unsprayed blocks to adjacent sprayed blocks, it may be useful to apply copper to blocks (or rows) of less susceptible trees that are adjacent to blocks of more susceptible trees. Most copper formulations are compatible with oil. Streptomycin should be applied to blossoms of susceptible apple and pear cultivars when weather conditions favor infection.

There is additional information on fire blight biology and management in the Spray Bulletin and online. Monitor our Web Site for up-to-date information on the disease at http://www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/current.html.

Apple scab ascospores begin to mature near the green tip stage of bud development. If you had greater than 0.5% leaf infection when you assessed foliage prior to leaf fall last season, then you should be ready to spray for the earliest scab infection periods. It is important to avoid early infections on sepals, as these are difficult to detect and can provide conidial inoculum throughout the early part of the growing season. Where pre-leaf fall leaf assessments indicated 1% or higher leaf infection, sanitation practices (urea application or flail mowing leaf litter) are unlikely to delay the onset of significant scab infection, and early spraying is advised. My belief is that the amount of ascospores destroyed by leaf litter destruction, approximately cost equivalent to one fungicide application, is worth the cost until we have more precise methods to determine how much leaf infection is taking place after harvest and before leaf drop.

Resistance to DMI fungicides (Nova, Rubigan, Procure, and Indar) was documented in all but one of the nine West Virginia orchards sampled in 2005 and 2006. Note that only one complete control failure with these fungicides has been observed in West Virginia orchards (e.g. in a WVU orchard insecticide research block in 2005). Nevertheless, growers will need to reassess their use of these materials in the next year or two, if they haven't already. I interpret the test results that indicate "resistance" to mean that a control failure could occur at any time if it hasn't already occurred. Observations in New York suggest that in the year preceding a control failure, one would expect to see an increase in fruit scab into the range of 1 to 5%. I have heard a couple of reports in which this could be the case in W.Va.

Here are some general observations on the usefulness of the common scab fungicides:

- Mancozeb fungicides at 3 lb/A are probably still the cheapest option for prebloom scab control, but they must be applied at 5-7 day intervals during rainy weather rather than at 10-day intervals as was common with SI+mancozeb combinations.

- If one compares 3 lb/A of Captan 50W (or the equivalent of another formulation) with 3 lb/A of mancozeb, captan will almost always provide better scab control than mancozeb. Captan usage is limited, however, by its higher pricing, its incompatibility with oil sprays, and its minimal activity against rust diseases. Where incompatibility with oil is not a factor, combinations of mancozeb and captan are a great choice for prebloom scab sprays. I would like to see the total pounds per acre at around 4.5 to 6 depending on scab history and weather conditions (based on captan 50W formulations; this will be less if using captan 80W formulations).

- Dodine may still work in some orchards, but don't trust it unless you've had leaf samples tested for fungicide resistance and I've told you the results. Significant crop loss can result from just one or two early-season applications of dodine in dodine-resistant orchards.

 - Vangard and Scala fungicides usually provide scab control similar to that provided by mancozeb at 3 lb/A.  However, Vangard and Scala can both provide 48-60 hr of post-infection activity against apple scab (counting from the start of the wetting period), whereas mancozeb sprays will provide only 18-36 hr of "kickback" activity when counting from the start of wetting periods, with the longer duration limited to colder infection periods. Vangard and Scala do not redistribute well, so combinations of mancozeb at 3 lb/A plus either 3 oz/A of Vangard or 5 fl oz/A of Scala are recommended when these products are used. Vangard may lose effectiveness at temperatures above 70 F.

- Flint, Sovran, and Pristine are excellent protectant fungicides that provide better scab control than mancozeb or captan used alone. They can also arrest spore production if visible scab lesions are present in trees. However, they will not stop epidemics as effectively as SI fungicides did in SI-sensitive orchards if they are applied after scab infections are established. Do not rely on them for postinfection or "kickback" activity beyond 48 hours. They are a good choice for use at petal fall and first cover if you suspect resistance or if you have experienced failure of the SI fungicides.

 - SI fungicides in combination with either captan or mancozeb might still be used at petal fall and first cover unless resistance is documented or unless an increase in fruit scab at harvest has been observed in the past two years when using an SI program. Continuing to use the SI's after resistance is documented but before a control failure is noticed represents a period of risk that should be considered seriously if these materials are to be used. SI's applied at that timing will provide significant suppression of powdery mildew as well as postinfection activity against any scab and rust infections that may have slipped through during the prebloom and bloom sprays. Using SI's in two applications after bloom should minimize selection pressures for SI-resistant scab while still maximizing the other benefits that SI's provide for apple disease management programs. Be aware that with the widespread documentation of resistance to SI's in W.Va., the proverbial horse may already be out of the barn.

Phytophthora root rot can be managed with mefanoxam (Ridomil Gold EC and Ridomil 5G) and will aid in the control of crown, collar, and other root rots caused by Phytophthora spp. on both bearing and non-bearing apple trees. Ridomil 5G can be used in nonbearing orchards only. Applications should be made on a preventative schedule before symptoms appear, especially in orchards where conditions are favorable for disease development. For best results, make one application at the time of planting or in the spring before growth starts. Make another application in the fall after harvest.

Dipping the roots of nursery-grown trees into a solution of the fungicide Aliette prior to planting may reduce inoculum on infested rootstocks. To use, thoroughly mix Aliette at a rate of 3.0 lbs./100 gallons of water, in the desired volume of water and dip the entire root system for 30 to 60 minutes in the mixture prior to planting in the field.


Trade and brand names are used only for the purpose of information, and the West Virginia University Extension Service does not guarantee nor warrant the standard of the product, nor does it imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. The West Virginia University Extension service assumes no responsibility in the use of hazardous chemicals.

Individuals requesting an accommodation at a meeting because of a disability should contact one of the Extension Specialists at the WVU Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center at 304-876-6353 at least five days prior to the event.

Helping you put knowledge to work

P. O. BOX 609
PHONE:  304-876-6353
FAX:  304-876-6034
WEB:  www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville

The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, West Virginia County
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