WVU Extension Service: The Orchard Monitor: Committed to the Integration of Orchard Management Practices
June 14, 2004

Upcoming Events Pest Management Issues


Pheromone Trap Counts Plant Pathology Horticulture



June 17, 6:00 p.m. - Twilight Fruit Grower's Meeting at Knouse Foods Cooperative, Inc., Inwood, W. Va.   The agenda will include a tour, dinner, and updates by VA Tech Extension Specialists.  To reach Knouse Foods, take I-81 to Exit 5 and travel East on Route 51 (towards Inwood).  Turn right on Pilgrim Street (before railroad track), go to stop sign, and proceed straight to enter Plant at scale office.  For more information contact Cyndi Marston at 540-665-5699 or at cmarston@vt.edu.

June 24, 6:00 p.m. - Tree Fruit Grower Twilight Dinner and Meeting at Levels Fire Hall, Levels, W. Va.   Following dinner, seasonal updates will be provided by Extension Specialists from the WVU Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center , and a tour of Shanholtz's peach orchard will be conducted.  The tour will include a cooperative WVU/USDA research project, funded by a Northeast SARE Partnership Grant, on the "Use of a Baited Trap Crop for Stink Bug Management in Peach".  An improved trap for stink bug monitoring also will be exhibited and discussed.  For more information contact the Hampshire County Extension Office at 304-822-5013.


Input is requested from stakeholders (growers, consultants, industry representatives, etc.) on important pest management issues in West Virginia .  Pest management issues (pesticide use, registration, labeling, available alternatives, etc.) will be addressed by a West Virginia Advisory Committee.  Please mail, phone or e-mail your comments to:

Dr. John F. Baniecki
West Virginia University
414 Brooks Hall
PO Box 6058
Morgantown , WV 26506-6058
Phone:  304-293-3911
E-mail:  John.Baniecki@mail.wvu.edu


Periodical cicada abundance and activity has declined significantly over the past week.  Even where cicadas were relatively numerous, it was recently observed that very few females were engaged in oviposition (egg-laying).  It's very likely that most of the oviposition is over and spent females are merely residing on trees until their death.  Therefore, at this point, the need for continued insecticide application for cicada control should be based on whether or not oviposition is occurring, not merely on cicada presence.  Cicadas that may be on fruit trees, but not ovipositing, do not pose a threat.

Oviposition injury is quite severe, with many dead and broken branch tips in some locations.  Overall, injury is much worse in Berkeley and Hampshire Counties than in Jefferson County .  Young trees and peach trees are especially hard hit.  Peach fruits are beginning to shrivel on broken and some injured branches.  Since these will not be harvested, they should be removed before harvest to reduce the threat of brown rot on healthy fruit.

Orchards should be inspected for European red mites and two-spotted spider mites over the next few weeks where pyrethroids or Lannate have been used for cicada control.   Nexter (formerly Pyramite), Acramite and Zeal are likely to be the most effective where mite control is needed.

Tufted apple bud moth first generation egg hatch continues and is estimated at 79% complete through June 13, based on an accumulation of 902 degree days (DD) since biofix on May 6.  Refer to the June 1st issue of this newsletter for insecticide options and recommended timings for control.

Oriental fruit moth second generation egg hatch also continues and is estimated at 24% complete through June 13, based on an accumulation of 1230 DD since biofix on April 16.  Where the pheromone trap catch exceeds 10 moths/trap/week, control should begin this week (1150-1200 DD after biofix) in peach with an application of azinphosmethyl (Guthion) or Imidan.  This should be followed by a second application at 1450-1500 DD after biofix (in about 10-14 days) in high pressure situations.  In apple, apply Intrepid, Assail or Calypso at 1350-1400 DD after biofix (on about June 17-19), or Avaunt, azinphosmethyl (Guthion) or Imidan at 1450-1500 DD after biofix (on about June 21-23).

Spotted tentiform leafminer adults (second flight) have been emerging since the last week of May, based on pheromone trap capture.  To determine if control of the second generation is needed, begin sampling sap-feeder mines.  Start at the orchard edge and, moving toward the center, sample every other tree until enough trees have been sampled.  Begin by selecting five mature terminal leaves from each of three trees, and count the sap-feeder mines on the underside of the leaves.  After 15 leaves have been examined, begin comparing the accumulated total number of mines found with the limits given in Table 1 below for that number of leaves.  If the number of mines falls between the two values given, sample five more leaves from another tree, continuing to add the number of mines found to the running total while checking Table 1 again.  Continue sampling in this fashion until the total number of mines falls below the lower limit or above the upper limit.  If the total is less than the lower limit, sampling is stopped and no treatment is required.  If the total is greater than the upper limit, sampling is stopped and an insecticide such as Provado, Actara, Assail, Calypso, SpinTor, Vydate, or Lannate should be applied.  If 10 trees (50 leaves) are sampled and the total number of mines is less than 98, no treatment is needed. Spotted tentiform leafminer sap-feeder mines
Table 1.  Limits to determine status of second generation spotted tentiform leafminer infestations. 

Second Generation Sap-feeder Mines

No. of Leaves Sampled Lower Limit Upper Limit
15 12 46
20 22 55
25 31 65
30 41 75
35 51 85
40 61 95
45 70 105
50 98 98


Apple maggot (AM) poses a threat to commercial apple orchards in West Virginia that are adjacent to abandoned orchards or wild hosts.    Fly emergence, which typically begins after mid-June, should be monitored in all commercial apple orchards that are adjacent to these sites.  Yellow pre-baited panel traps or red sphere traps should be installed on the outside row closest to the wild hosts or abandoned orchard.  Position traps about 5-6 ft above the ground so they are surrounded, but not touched or obstructed from view, by fruit and leaves.  Traps should be inspected and AM flies counted weekly.  When using the yellow trap, an insecticide [azinphos-methyl (Guthion) or Imidan] should be applied within 7-10 days of catching a single fly.  With the red sphere trap baited with apple volatiles, apply one of these insecticides immediately if an average of 5 or more flies per trap are caught within a week.  If no apple volatiles are used with the red sphere trap, the threshold should be lowered to 1 fly per trap.  Capture of flies for 1-14 days following the insecticide application can be discounted.  Once 14 days have elapsed since the last application, retreat immediately if the threshold is reached again.
Apple maggot adultApple maggot injuryYellow panel trapRed sphere trap


March 22 0                
March 29 54 0              
April 5 12 11 0            
April 12 33 208 3            
April 19 41 256 44            
April 26 36 250 200 0 0   0    
May 3 4 62 52 39 3   2    
May 10 1 20 11 42 39 0 50    
May 17 0 10 16 22 77 11 89    
May 24 0 0 17 9 164 19 43    
June 1 58 768 1 13 52 8 32 1  
June 7 33 480 8 9 20 2 18 3  
June 14 45 812 13 6 31 9 41 4

RBLR = Redbanded leafroller; STLM = Spotted tentiform leafminer; OFM = Oriental fruit moth; CM = Codling moth; TABM = Tufted apple bud moth; DWB = Dogwood borer; LPTB = Lesser peach tree borer; PTB = Peach tree borer; AM = Apple maggot.
1In a commercial orchard adjacent to an abandoned orchard near Kearneysville.


Infection periods. We have recorded 16 infection periods to date (Table 2), three occurring since the last Orchard Monitor was published on June 1, 2004. I've listed infection period #15 because it was accompanied by 2.3 inches of rain, which can result in significant degradation of fungicide protection. Because proper spray timing is a key to good summer disease control, make sure the next fungicide application occurs prior to the next wetting period.

Table 2. Dates and conditions for infection periods at the WVU - KTFREC, 2004.

No. Date 2004 Hours/ degrees F
8. May 14 - 16 37 hr/65 F
9. May 18 - 20 38 hr/66 F
10. May 21 - 22 13 hr/63 F
11. May 25 - 26 16 hr/ 67 F
12. May 27 - 28 16 hr/ 65 F
13. May 31 - June 1 13 hr/62 F
14. June 4 7 hr/65 F
15. June 5 4 hr/58 F
16. June 10 - 12 52 hr/58 F

Accumulated wetting hours. As of June 14, 2004, we have accumulated 181 and 224 wetting hours, for petal fall dates of May 8 and May 1, respectively. Accumulated wetting hours are useful for predicting the appearance of sooty blotch on nonsprayed fruit. Symptom development for these diseases is highly dependent upon temperature and moisture conditions surrounding the fruit. The appearance of sooty blotch symptoms has been predicted with reasonable accuracy by using accumulated wetting hours (AWH). Visible signs of sooty blotch may appear following approximately 260 - 300 AWH (earlier in the season (260 AWH) if the disease was severe last year, later in the season (300 AWH) if not). The AWH threshold for making the decision to include Topsin-M in the spray program is 225 for high disease pressure and 275 for low disease pressure. Each of these threshold values presumes that 25 additional AWH will occur in the next 5 days after reaching the threshold. For early varieties under high disease pressure, we have arrived at the threshold.

See our "Current Conditions" Web page for details that are updated at least three times weekly.


Leaf Analysis of Tree Fruits

An Important Tool for Determining Nutrient Needs

Chemical analysis of plant foliage is an important tool for establishing and maintaining a proper fertilizer program in fruit plantings. Leaf analysis can be used to confirm or diagnose a problem associated with a nutrient shortage or excess, and more importantly to prevent the development of a nutrient disorder in an orchard. Usually, it reveals that certain fertilizers being used are not necessary and results in the most economical fertilizer program.

For diagnosing a problem, only a single analysis properly taken may be needed. In other instances, a series of analyses may be necessary to arrive at a proper explanation. Paired comparisons, one from normal and one from the abnormal condition, are frequently helpful.

Foliar analyses made over a period of years can indicate an approaching deficiency of a nutrient element before the plant shows any visible symptoms. It is possible then, through proper corrective fertilizer applications, to prevent the deficiency from ever occurring in the tree. By the same token, it is possible to learn when an element may be increasing in a tree toward a level that will reduce fruit quality or bring about some other undesirable effect. When this condition is known, steps can be taken to alter the fertilizer program and cultural practices that influence the uptake of the element from the soil.

Grower use of leaf analysis should be aimed at reaching optimum production within the limits of good nutrition. Other factors such as diseases, soil moisture, and insects become the limiting factors once desired nutritional levels are reached and maintained. Using leaf analyses only when nutritional problems are suspected will not yield the greatest grower returns.

Common Nutritional Problems in West Virginia Orchards

Nitrogen control is the most common and serious nutritional problem in West Virginia orchards. Excessive levels of nitrogen occur more frequently than deficient levels. Deficiencies of potassium, magnesium, calcium and boron have been found in some orchards in the state. Manganese toxicity (expressed as Internal Bark Necrosis on apple trees) is also found in some locations. Although not widespread, these nutrient imbalances do cause problems in isolated blocks of trees.

All of these disorders can be most readily identified by leaf analysis. In many cases, growers have found that money spent for leaf analysis has been returned many times over in reduced fertilizer costs and in better crops of higher quality fruit.

Further Information on Leaf Analysis

Contact the WVU Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, P.O. Box 609, Kearneysville, WV 25430 (phone 304-876-6353) to obtain kits to submit leaf samples to the Penn State University Agricultural Analytical Services Laboratory. The proper time to take apple and peach leaf samples is between mid-July and mid-August.

Source: WVU Extension Service Publication OM 1020


Trade and brand names are used only for the purpose of information, and the West Virginia University Extension Service does not guarantee nor warrant the standard of the product, nor does it imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. The West Virginia University Extension service assumes no responsibility in the use of hazardous chemicals.

Individuals requesting an accommodation at a meeting because of a disability should contact one of the Extension Specialists at the WVU Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center at 304-876-6353 at least five days prior to the event.

Helping you put knowledge to work

P. O. BOX 609
PHONE:  304-876-6353
FAX:  304-876-6034
WEB:  www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville

The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, West Virginia County
Boards of Education and County Commissions Cooperating.  Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Institution

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