WVU Extension Service: The Orchard Monitor: Committed to the Integration of Orchard Management Practices
October 17, 2005

Upcoming Events

Entomology

Pheromone Trap Counts Plant Pathology

 

UPCOMING EVENTS

November 15, 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. - Grape Production Primer at Virginia Tech's AHS, Jr. Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Winchester, VA.  This one-day classroom and vineyard workshop targets those who are exploring winegrape growing opportunities in the mid-Atlantic region.  Topics will include economics, site selection, varieties, and vineyard establishment.  Various aspects of established vineyard management (canopy management, pest management, pruning and training, cold injury avoidance) will be discussed at an introductory level.  Instructors include Tony Wolf and Fritz Westover (VA Tech), Joe Fiola (Univ. of MD), and Mark Chien (Penn State Univ.).  Registration of $125 (covers refreshments, catered lunch, handouts, and speaker expenses) must be received by Nov. 11 and is limited to the first 60 persons.  For more information contact Tony Wolf at 540-869-2560 x18 or at vitis@vt.edu, or Fritz Westover at 540-869-2560 x11.

December 6-8. - Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable and Farm Market Expo at the DeVos Place Convention Center, Grand Rapids, MI.  For more information call 734-848-8899 or go to www.glexpo.com.

January 25-27. - Annual Meeting and Trade Show of the Virginia and West Virginia State Horticultural Societies at the Holiday Inn Select, Koger South Conference Center, Richmond, VA.  For more information contact Liz White at 540-667-1165 or at Liz@green-inc.com, or Joyce Moler at 304-725-9522 or at tmoler@citlink.net.

January 31 - February 2. - Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention at the Hershey Lodge and Convention Center, Hershey, PA.  For more information contact Maureen Irvin at 717-677-4184 or at shap@supernet.com.

ENTOMOLOGY

Pesticide label changes.  On August 17, 2005, EPA announced the planned termination of labeled uses of azinphos-methyl (Guthion, Azinphos-methyl 50WS) on peaches, nectarines, caneberries (brambles) and cranberries.  The following timelines have been established:  1) January 31, 2006 - last day registrants can manufacture product labeled for use on above crops; 2) March 31, 2006 - last day registrants can distribute product labeled for use on above crops; and 3) September 30, 2006 - last day distributors/retailers can sell and growers can use product labeled on above crops.  In effect, EPA's action allows growers one more use season for azinphos-methyl products that are labeled on the above crops.  Use of azinphos-methyl products on apples, pears, cherries, and blueberries is not affected by this action.  More information on EPA's ruling can be found in the Federal Register (volume 70, number 158) at:  www.epa.gov/fedrgstr.

Labels for Imidan will begin appearing with a longer restricted-entry interval (REI) of 72 hrs. sometime in 2006.  This means that at some point (most likely mid season)  there will be an overlap of both 24 and 72 hr REI products in the marketplace.  Be sure to check the REI of the Imidan in your possession when scheduling orchard activities following spray application next season.

2005 pest summary.  Internal worms  (codling moth, oriental fruit moth) continue to be the most troublesome pest complex for WV growers in terms of fruit injury and loss.  Although both species are responsible, injury from codling moth has increased.  Most internal worm injury is occurring after mid-July.  Warm temperatures  this summer resulted in the completion of an entire third generation egg hatch of codling moth from mid-August through late September.  Pheromone trap counts of oriental fruit moth (4th and 5th flights) were especially high (over 100/week) in quite a few orchards during this same time period.  Every effort should be made to remove dropped apples in those blocks which experienced a high incidence of internal worm injury.  Also, bins used to harvest fruit in high injury blocks should not be stored near blocks without injury in order to prevent establishment of new infestations from overwintering larvae.

Rosy apple aphid was more problematic than last year, but not as abundant as in 2003.  More cases of poor performance of pyrethroids against this pest were observed, whereas neonicotinoids (Actara, Assail, Calypso, Provado) performed very well.  In general, incidence of spirea aphids, leafhoppers and leafminers was very low in most orchards.  In spite of hot temperatures during July and August, populations of European red mites requiring control were not as numerous as expected.  Japanese beetles were quite abundant over a prolonged period for the second year in a row.  Following two wet seasons, it is expected that the dry conditions this August and September will reduce populations next year.  Incidence of fruit injury from leafrollers (tufted apple bud moth, variegated leafroller, redbanded leafroller) was generally low throughout the area.  Pheromone trap counts of redbanded leafroller have been increasing and were significantly higher than tufted apple bud moth during August this year at the WVU-KTFREC.

PHEROMONE TRAP COUNTS
WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY KTFREC

DATE - 2005 RBLR STLM OFM CM TABM DWB LPTB PTB AM
March 21 0            
March 28 3 0            
April 4 17 9 0            
April 11 73 720 3            
April 18 51 896 42            
April 25 34 1372 186            
May 2 7 256 89 0 0 0 0    
May 9 8 140 53 15 7 0 0    
May 16 5 94 163 32 76 0 18    
May 23 2 15 23 21 131 1 24    
May 31 0 0 5 4 108 2 14 0  
June 6 0 52 10 9 144 1 14 0  
June 13 34 1280 9 23 132 0 37 3  
June 20 121 704 6 7 50 17 28 0  
June 27 135 1728 14 1 9 13 13 3 0
July 5 122 1312 30 8 1 15 11 2 0
July 11 34 640 7 13 2 14 4 0 1
July 18 17 1280 9 17 1 8 2 0 4
July 25 12 416 9 36 2 25 1 0 2
August 1 15 463 39 20 8 15 4 0 4
August 8 44 1280 33 12 13 18 3 0 2
August 15 77 480 55 5 32 13 3 1 1
August 22 178 440 73 7 51 22 15 3 2
August 29 143 640 67 4 43 12 12 1 1
September 6 79 1280 120 7 20 10 16 1 2
September 12 24 2528 152 5 3 12 2 0 2
September 19 13 2952 118 2 6 8 1 0 2
September 26 3 1752 69 0 5 4 0 0 1
October 3 2 240 0 0 4 1 0 0 1
October 10 1 227 6 0 0 0 0 0 1
DATE - 2005 RBLR STLM OFM CM TABM DWB LPTB PTB AM

RBLR = Redbanded leafroller; STLM = Spotted tentiform leafminer; OFM = Oriental fruit moth; CM = Codling moth; TABM = Tufted apple bud moth; DWB = Dogwood borer; LPTB = Lesser peach tree borer; PTB = Peach tree borer; AM = Apple maggot.

PLANT PATHOLOGY


Peach leaf curl control that is virtually 100% effective can be achieved by a single fungicide application during the dormant season. A dilute application should be made under calm conditions anytime after most (no less than 90%) of the leaves have fallen and before hard freezing weather sets in. Thorough coverage of each bud is essential for controlling the leaf curl fungus. If leaf curl was severe in your peach or nectarine blocks this year, make fungicide applications this fall and next spring before bud swell. Treatments with copper compounds are recommended where bacterial spot has been a problem. In orchard blocks that have been intensively scouted and where the grower knows with certainty that the disease is entirely absent from the block for a period of two or more years, this spray can be omitted until the disease begins to recur.  See the 2005 Spray Bulletin for fungicides and rates of application.

Phytophthora root rot can be managed with mefanoxam (Ridomil Gold EC and Ridomil 5G) and will aid in the control of crown, collar, and other root rots caused by Phytophthora spp. on both bearing and non-bearing apple trees. Ridomil 5G can be used in nonbearing orchards only. Applications should be made on a preventative schedule before symptoms appear, especially in orchards where conditions are favorable for disease development. This would include any young blocks of trees on M.26 rootstock. Ridomil should not be expected to revitalize trees showing moderate to severe disease symptoms. Ridomil is not registered for use as a preplanting dip treatment. For best results, make one application at the time of planting or in the spring before growth starts. Make another application in the fall after harvest. Ridomil is highly specific and will not control other agents causing similar tree decline symptoms, including but not limited to other fungal root rots, graft union necrosis (tomato ringspot virus) and vole damage. 

Dipping the roots of nursery-grown trees into a solution of the fungicide Aliette prior to planting may reduce, but not eliminate, Phytophthora inoculum on infested rootstocks. To use, thoroughly mix Aliette at a rate of 3 lbs/100 gallons of water, in the desired volume of water and dip the entire root system for 30 to 60 minutes in the mixture prior to planting.

Apple scab urea application.  A 5% solution of urea (46-0-0) in water may be applied to apple trees as leaves begin to fall in the autumn (42 lb. urea in 100 gal. water, applied at 100 gallons/acre). This should be done as late as possible to prevent the urea from being translocated into the tree. However, it should be early enough to have most of the leaves still on the tree. Note that trees sprayed with urea may defoliate more quickly than unsprayed trees. Urea may also be sprayed on the leaves on the ground, after all the leaves have dropped. The ground spray can also be done in the spring.


READ THE LABEL CAREFULLY AND USE THE CHEMICALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH LABEL CAUTIONS, WARNING AND DIRECTIONS. REQUEST A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) FROM THE MANUFACTURER FOR EACH PRODUCT YOU USE.

Trade and brand names are used only for the purpose of information, and the West Virginia University Extension Service does not guarantee nor warrant the standard of the product, nor does it imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. The West Virginia University Extension service assumes no responsibility in the use of hazardous chemicals.

Individuals requesting an accommodation at a meeting because of a disability should contact one of the Extension Specialists at the WVU Kearneysville Tree Fruit Research and Education Center at 304-876-6353 at least five days prior to the event.


Helping you put knowledge to work


WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
TREE FRUIT RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
P. O. BOX 609
KEARNEYSVILLE, WV 25430-0609
PHONE:  304-876-6353
FAX:  304-876-6034
WEB:  www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville

The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, West Virginia County
Boards of Education and County Commissions Cooperating.  Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Institution


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