West Virginia University

Extension Service

October 2001

Dr. John F. Baniecki, Extension Specialist in Plant Pathology/Entomology,
Pest Management Program

EPA Provides Guidance on Disposal Instructions for Household Use Pesticides

 On September 13, EPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) published a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice 2001-6) revising the 18-year-old guidance. Revised disposal instructions will direct consumers to call their local solid waste authorities for specific instructions and provide state and local governments greater latitude in carrying out their responsibilities for product disposal and waste management programs.

The EPA believes the changes should enhance the proper disposal of pesticide products. The changes include the addition of the phrase "call your local solid waste agency" inclusion of a toll-free telephone number, and removal of the phrase "wrap in paper." Wrapping containers prior to disposal in the trash does not appear to provide reliable protection to sanitation workers and may result in accidental or unknown exposure.

The draft for this guidance has been available since June of 2000. Public response received during the comment period was voluminous, with much of it expressing strong opposition to any label statements directing consumers to put pesticides in the trash. Other commentors demanded additional steps to keep household pesticides out of water supplies.

As of October 2003, OPP will look for the following disposal statements on pressurized containers: 

1.   Do not puncture or incinerate,
2.      If empty: place in trash or offer
for recycling if available,
3.       If partially filled: call you local solid waste agency for disposal instructions.

      On non-pressurized containers, statements should say:

  1. If empty: do not reuse this container. Place in trash or offer for recycling if available,
  2. If partially filled: call your local solid waste agency for disposal instructions.

      Never place unused product down any indoor or outdoor drain. (EPA OPP Update, 9/19/01 & Pesticide & Toxic Chemical News, Vol. 29, No. 48).

The EPA Has Issued Revised Guidance For The Disposal Of Household Pesticides

 The new instructions direct consumers to call their local solid waste authorities for specific disposal instructions and provide state and local governments greater latitude in carrying out their responsibilities for product disposal and waste management programs. The Agency had discovered that current label directions for disposal were contradictory to local regulations. For example, many municipalities direct pesticide disposal away from landfills.

Additionally, some labels may inadvertently increase risks of exposure. Current label directions frequently instruct households to wrap pesticides in several layers of newspaper for disposal with the household trash. However, even several layers of paper may not protect the sanitation worker, particularly if the person does not know if a pesticide is contained in the package.

For more information, contact the Pesticide Docket at (703) 305-5805 or electronically on EPA's home page at http://www.epa.gov/PR_Notices/ or Amy Breedlove at 703-308-9069 or breedlove.amy@epa.gov

 Survey By Responsible Industry For A Sound Environment, Most Parents Do Not Think About Pests Or Pesticides At Their Children's Schools 

Parents listed air quality, asbestos, lead, and mold/fungus as environmental qualities of concern at schools. However, parents become concerned very easily about pests and pesticides when these topics are raised.

- All pesticides are sprayed.

- Pesticides used in school are industrial strength.

- School janitors are responsible for applying pesticides.

- Pesticides are applied to the entire school randomly (not part of a strategy or plan).

ˇ        Parents know little about IPM (Integrated Pest Management), but they see it as a logical, common sense approach to controlling pests when IPM is explained.

ˇ        Most parents wanted general understanding of the school pest management program, but they were not interested in knowing about every application. (TheGeorgia Pest Management Newsletter, Oct. 2001)

Agricultural Engineers At The Ohio State University Developed A Biomass-Sensing Device That Calculates The Volume Of A Plant And Compares The Result To The Plant's Expected ("Normal") Growth At Any Point During The Growing Period 

The resulting information can help growers determine the overall health of a crop and whether there is need for inputs such as irrigation, pest management, or fertilization. The sensor alerts growers to a potential problem by comparing measurements of crop growth against a predetermined normal growth rate. The device is similar to a radar unit in that it scans, at a 180-degree angle, the cross section of a crop plant, and creates a map that calculates overall plant volume. Sensors can be mounted on tractors so that growth information can be collected while performing other operations. M.R. Ehsani, Ehsani.2@osu.edu (IPM NET news, October 2001)

EPA Has Published A Cancellation Order For Registrations For All Indoor Uses, Certain Agricultural Uses, And Certain Outdoor Non-Agricultural Uses For End-Use Diazinon Products Belonging To Eight Registrants

 This order follows up on the August 1 publication in the Federal Register of the Notice of Receipt of Cancellation Requests and Amendments.

Retail sale of existing stocks of products labeled for indoor uses listed in this notice, except mushroom houses, will not be lawful after December 31, 2002. Retail sale of existing stocks labeled for canceled agricultural uses or outdoor non-agricultural uses will be allowed until 1 year after issuance of the final cancellation order. Retail purchasers may continue to use canceled products in accordance with existing labels. You can find more information at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/op/diazinon.htm

 The EPA Has Announced That Ethion Is Being Cancelled At The Request Of The Registrant

 Ethion is registered for use on citrus in Florida and Texas and on cattle in ear tags. According to the request for voluntary cancellation, sale of manufacturing use products will end October 1, 2003. EPA expects that use of such products would end by December 31, 2003. End-use products could be sold until October 1, 2004, and EPA expects use of these products would end December 31, 2004. EPA will accept comments on this notice until October 26, 2001. Comments must cite OPP docket number OPP-00742. EPA's risk assessment documents for ethion are available on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/op/ethion.htm

 Largest Enforcement Cases Ever Initiated For Pesticide Violations Assessed Micro Flo Fines Of $3.7 Million For 673 Violations

The suit alleges that Micro Flo has been selling pesticides with a composition that did not match the registration. The EPA also alleges that the company falsified documents that accompanied shipments.

Basically, companies may only import pesticides from sources that have been approved by EPA. This suit contends that Micro Flo imported chemicals from unapproved foreign companies and hid that information from the government. (PANUPS, 9-21-01, based on information from U.S. EPA Enforcement and Compliance Update, September 18, 2001; U.S. EPA Civil Complaint, FIFRA-04-2001-3000, September 11, 2001; Wright & Sielaty Press Release, September 14, 2001; AGROW, April 13, 2001, August 31, 2001)

 The EPA Has Just Announced That The Conditional Registration For Bt Cotton Has Been Extended For Five Years

 Bt cotton has been genetically altered by the insertion of a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis that allows the cotton to make a toxic protein that kills some types of caterpillars. This toxin is not dangerous for humans or other animals.

Provisions attached to the extended registrations are intended to strengthen insect resistance management, improve grower awareness and stewardship, and prevent gene flow from Bt cotton to weedy relatives. The amended registration requires that some acres be set aside where non-Bt cotton will be grown to serve as a "refuge." These refuge fields will support populations of insects not exposed to the Bt toxin. The insect populations in the refuges will help prevent resistance development when they crossbreed with insects in the Bt fields. Four distinct refuge designs have been developed and are available for growers to implement to limit potential development of insect resistance. One, called the "external, unsprayed refuge option" (also known as the 95:5 refuge) has a 3-year expiration date. By September 2004, EPA will review data on the value of other crops and weed plants as providing additional refuge and will consider whether or not to maintain this option.

Other provisions to maximize protection of the public and environment include an EPA requirement that the company developing this product, Monsanto, will conduct monitoring of any potential impacts from its continued use. The registrant must also educate growers about the best methods of planting Bt cotton to minimize any potential development of insect resistance or gene transfer to other plants.

The details of the EPA decision will be posted at www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticides/

EPA Worker Protection Standard Checklist

 The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires all agricultural employers (including forestry, nurseries, greenhouses, and row crops) to conform to the Worker Protection Standard (WPS). This checklist will help you comply with WPS regulations.

This summary is intended as a checklist for agricultural employers; it does not contain all details of WPS compliance. Agricultural employers should be familiar with "The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides -- How to Comply" developed by the U.S. EPA.

Contact your extension office or the West Virginia Department of Agriculture for assistance.

Information at central location. Provide access. Keep legible and current.

WPS Safety Poster
Nearest medical facility (name/phone/location)
Applications (post before applic. until 30 days after re-entry interval [REI] expires)
Product (name/EPA reg. no./active ingredient)
Location/description of treated area
Date/Time/REI for each application

 Training. Valid for 5 years if records (or EPA card) are available.

Workers: Basic training before work. Complete training within 5 days.
Early entry Workers: Complete training before work.
Handlers: Complete training before work.
People with license for restricted-use pesticides (RUP) do not need WPS training.
People with pesticide license can perform WPS training.

 Decontamination. Must be within 1/4 mile of workers/handlers. Water must be clean/not too hot. Must be maintained for 7-30 days after REI expires; consult pesticide label for REI.

Workers: Water to wash hands, soap, and single use towels
Decontamination must not be in area being treated or under REI.
Handlers: Water to wash entire body, soap, single use towels, and clean clothes
Also provide decontamination where personal protective equipment (PPE) is removed.
Also provide decontamination in mix/load area.
In areas being treated, supplies must be enclosed.

 Emergency Assistance. Act promptly if any worker/handler may be poisoned.

Provide transport to medical facility.
Supply information to medical personnel.
Product name/EPA reg. no./active ingredients
Description of pesticide use.
Details about exposure.

 Information Exchange. Between agricultural establishments and commercial applicators

Commercial applicator to agricultural establishment (before application)
Area to be sprayed.
Date/time of application
Product name/EPA reg. no./active ingredient/REI
Does product require oral warning and posting?
All labeling safety requirements.
Agricultural establishment to operator
All areas that will be treated or where REI is in effect.
Restrictions on areas being treated or where REI is in effect.

 During applications and REI (restricted entry interval).

No one allowed in area being treated except trained/equipped pesticide handlers.
Nursery workers 100 feet (or more) away from area being treated.
Handlers only in greenhouse during treatment or until air concentration levels on labeling are met (or 2-hr. ventilation with fans).
No workers allowed to enter during REI and contact anything that may have pesticide residues


Some labels require both oral warnings and posting of treated areas.
If label does not specify, you may notify workers orally or by posting.
With oral notification, inform workers of areas that are treated and REI. Tell workers not to enter during REI.
Oral notification must be done before application or before workers begin work.
Post all greenhouse applications.
Posting must be done before application and remain until 3 days after REI expires.
Signs must be visible from all entrances into treated areas.

 Early entry by agricultural workers.

No hand labor.
No early entry into areas treated with pesticides that require oral and written warning.
Workers must be 'no-contact' or equipped with PPE required by label.
Workers must receive full WPS worker training before early entry task.
No early entry within 4 hours of pesticide application.
Early entry tasks may be performed for 8 hours out of 24-hour period.


 Handlers must never allow pesticide to contact anyone except trained/equipped pesticide handlers.
Be sure handlers understand all labeling information for the pesticide(s) they are using.
Handlers have access to labeling throughout handling task(s).
Handlers must be trained in use of all equipment used to handle/apply pesticides.

 Monitoring pesticide handlers

Sight or voice contact every 2 hours for pesticides with skull/crossbones.
Constant monitoring for handlers in greenhouses doing fumigation tasks. Monitor should have PPE to enter greenhouse.


Inspect pesticide equipment before use.
Cleaning, repair, or adjustment of pesticide equipment by trained/equipped handlers only.

 PPE (personal protective equipment)

Provide PPE required by label.
Maintain/clean PPE. Clean before each day it will be used.
Store away from possible pesticide contamination.
Be sure respirators and other PPE are used properly.
Replace respirator filters/cartridges at appropriate intervals.
Provide pesticide-free area to store personal clothes and for putting on/taking off PPE.
PPE may not be taken home.
Dispose of PPE that is heavily contaminated as hazardous wastes.
Inform people who clean PPE of potential hazards and how to protect themselves.
Avoid heat stress.

 Crop consultants.

To be exempt from any WPS regulations, consultants must be certified through National Alliance of Independent Crop Consultants or the America Society of Agronomy.

Employers do not need to monitor crop advisors when they enter fields before REI expires.

Employers do not need to provide decontamination site or emergency assistance after application ends.

A person is only a crop consultant when he or she is doing crop consultant tasks. It does not include anyone doing hand labor like weeding, planting, cultivating or harvesting.

Crop advisors can choose appropriate PPE for themselves and their employees. They can ignore the WPS PPE instructions on the label. They must follow all other instructions on the labeling.

Pesticide Tidbits

 -Rohm & Haas has been granted tolerances for residues of the fungicide zoxamide and its metabolites on tomato (2 ppm) and cucurbit vegetables (1 ppm). This material is currently registered only on grape and potato, but it is believed that registration in these two new areas will reduce grower reliance on chlorothalonil and mancozeb. These new registrations will be issued to Dow AgroSciences, the current holder of the zoxamide registrations (Federal Register, 9/26/01 and USDA-OPMP Newest News, 10/3/01).

-Syngenta's MedallionŽ fungicide is now available for use in outdoor nurseries and landscape ornamentals. It is labeled for use on more than 40 plants. (Ornamental Outlook, October, 2001).  

-The EPA has issued a notice of receipt of request by S.C. Johnson & Son Inc., to cancel the registration of RaidŽ Max Roach Bait (EPA Registration number 4822-355). The active ingredient is sulfluramid. Unless the request is withdrawn by March 25, 2002, orders will be issued to cancel this registration. (Federal Register, 9/26/01). 

-BioSafe Systems TerraCyteŽ (peroxygen) is a granular product labeled to control moss, algae, slime molds and liverworts in ornamental production. (Ornamental Outlook, October, 2001)

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The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture and West Virginia counties cooperating. Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Institution.