WVU Extension Service: The Orchard Monitor: Committed to the Integration of Orchard Management Practices
January 31, 2005

Upcoming Events Spray Bulletin Entomology Plant Pathology Horticulture Romney
Fruit School
Kearneysville
 Fruit School

 

UPCOMING EVENTS

February 11, 8:00 a.m. - 3:00 p.m. - Winchester Area Commercial Fruit Production School at War Memorial Building in Jim Barnett Park, Winchester, VA.  Registration fee (for lunch) is $8 at the door.  For more information contact Cyndi Marston at 540-665-5699, or at cmarston@vt.edu.

February 14, 21, 28, March 7, 14 & 21 (March 28 for canceled classes), 7:00 - 9:00 p.m. - Beekeeping Short Course sponsored by the Eastern Panhandle Beekeepers Association (EPBA) and the Hagerstown Valley Apian Society (HVAS) at the WVU Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, Kearneysville, WV.  The registration fee is $30 by Feb 7 or $35 at the door, which includes all family members of same household, membership in EPBA or HVAS, light snacks, textbook, and weekly door prizes.  For more information contact Dave Freese at 304-267-6188, Eric Lindberg at 304-876-3636, Don Wheeler at 301-432-6268, or Bill Troup at 301-223-9662.  Visit the web site at www.epbawv.org or e-mail inquiries to epbawv@adelphia.net.

February 19, 9:00 a.m. - 12:00 a.m. - Grape Pruning and Training Clinic sponsored by the Maryland Grape Growers Association at the Western Maryland Research and Education Center, Keedysville, MD.  Registration is $7.  For more information contact G.R. Welsh at 301-432-2767 x329, or check www.marylandwine.com.

February 22-23. - Marketing for Success:  A Short-Course for Growers and Market Managers at the Ramada Inn, Morgantown, WV.   Day 1 topics include signage, pricing, bylaws, recruiting vendors, insurance, promotion and advertising.  Day 2 topics include product diversity, heirlooms, wildlife control, organic pest management, cut flowers, and value-added products.  Registration of $22 per day or $37 for both days is due by Feb. 15.  A brochure and registration form is available at www.wvu.edu/~agexten/upevent.htm.  For more information contact Stacy Miller at 304-293-6131 x4234, or at smille33@mix.wvu.edu.

March 9, 8:00 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. - West Virginia Fruit School - 2005: Challenges and Opportunities for IPM in Fruit Production at the Coca Cola Building, Romney, WV.  See program below.  Registration fee is $15 by March 1 or $20 at the door.  For more information contact the Hampshire County Extension Office at 304-822-5013, or at Bob.ChevesJr@mail.wvu.edu.

March 10, 8:00 a.m. - 4:45 p.m. - West Virginia Fruit School - 2005: Challenges and Opportunities for IPM in Fruit Production at the WVU Tree Fruit Research and Education Center, Kearneysville, WV.  See program below.  Registration fee is $15 by March 1 or $20 at the door.  For more information contact the WVU KTFREC at 304-876-6353, or at ggimbel@wvu.edu.

SPRAY BULLETIN

The 2005 Virginia/West Virginia/ Maryland Spray Bulletin For Commercial Tree Fruit Growers will be available by mid-February, however, the cost is yet to be determined.  Contact the WVU KTFREC at 304-876-6353 or at ggimbel@wvu.edu after mid-February to determine availability and cost.  The Spray Bulletin will also be available on the Web as PDF files at: http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/treefruit/456-419/456-419.html.

ENTOMOLOGY

The following new products have recently become available for arthropod pest management programs in tree fruit.

Cyd-X is an aqueous suspension of insecticidal granulovirus, manufactured by Certis USA, for the control of codling moth larvae on apple, pear, plum, and walnut.  This group of viruses has been found only in invertebrates and they do not infect vertebrates of plants.  Cyd-X must be ingested to be effective.  The virus spreads from gut cells to other tissues, killing larvae in 3-7 days, depending on dosage and temperature.  Dead larvae eventually disintegrate and release billions of new infectious units, which can infect other larvae.  Timing Cyd-X sprays to target young larvae at the beginning of each generation is important.  Two applications per generation, at a rate of 3-6 fl oz per acre, are recommended. The use of a spreader-sticker with UV blocking properties may extend the residual activity and enhance weather fastness.  Apply in non-chlorinated water at a pH near 7.   Cyd-X should be refrigerated or frozen during storage as exposure to temperatures above 90F can inactivate the product.  This material is certified by the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) and approved for organic production.

FujiMite (fenpyroximate) from Nichino America, Inc. is a contact acaricide/insecticide registered on apple and pear for the control of various mite species, white apple leafhopper, and pear psylla. Like Nexter, its mode of action is to block cellular respiration by acting as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI). It also acts to inhibit molting of immature stages. Mite feeding and oviposition stop soon after application, with death occurring in 4-7 days. Formulated as a 5EC, FujiMite is used at the rate of 2 pints per acre. It should not be applied more than once per season, and should be rotated with products having a different mode of action where additional control is needed. FujiMite has a restricted entry interval (REI) of 12 hours and a preharvest interval (PHI) of 14 days.

Kanemite (acequinocyl) from Arvesta Corporation is a naphthoquinone derivative acaricide registered for the control of European red mite and twospotted spider mite on apple and pear.  Formulated as a 15SC (suspension concentrate), it is used at the rate of 31 fl oz per acre.  Kanemite acts as a mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor (METI), blocking cellular respiration, but at a different site than other compounds.  Activity occurs primarily by contact and secondarily by ingestion.  Kanemite should be applied at mite threshold, and rotated with acaricides having different modes of action to minimize development of resistance.  It has been classified by EPA as a reduced risk compound, and has a 14-day PHI and 12-hour REI.

Proaxis (gamma-cyhalothrin) is a pyrethroid insecticide registered for the control of many insect species on all pome and stone fruits. Formulated as a 0.5 lb per gallon encapsulated suspension (CS), it is applied at the rate of 2.56-5.12 fl oz per acre (0.01-0.02 lb ai/acre). Proaxis is limited to a season maximum of 1.6 pints per acre (0.1 lb ai/acre) and a postbloom maximum of 1.28 pints per acre (0.08 lb ai/acre). As with other pyrethroids, postbloom use of this product is likely to result in a mite outbreak. Proaxis has a restricted entry interval (REI) of 24 hours, and a preharvest interval (PHI) of 21 days on pome fruits and 14 days on stone fruits. See label regarding season maximum if Warrior is also included in spray program.

Rimon (novaluron) from Makhteshim-Agan of North America, Inc. has a Section 24(c) supplemental label for use in West Virginia for the control of codling moth, oriental fruit moth, and various leafroller species on apple.  Rimon is an insect growth regulator (IGR) that interferes with the insect's ability to form chitin, thus disrupting the molting process.  Therefore, it is effective only against the immature stages of insects, and will not kill adults.  Route of insect entry is primarily through ingestion, with some contact activity.   Toxicity to eggs has also been demonstrated for some insect species.  Rimon is available as a 0.83EC and applied at the rate of 20-40 fl oz/acre, with a maximum of 4 applications (150 fl oz/acre) per season.  It has a 12 hour REI and 14 day PHI.

3M Canada has made a decision to exit the sprayable pheromone business for forestry and agriculture.  They marketed sprayable pheromones for the control of oriental fruit moth, codling moth and peachtree borer species in tree fruits.  Sprayable pheromones are also produced by Suterra Inc. (Bend, OR), which has submitted an application for registration of CheckMate OFM-F (for oriental fruit moth) in West Virginia.  Existing supplies of 3M Canada sprayable pheromones can be used.  Various type hand-applied dispensers are also a commercially available option for mating disruption.

PLANT PATHOLOGY

Peach leaf curl should be controlled in the spring with a fungicide application before the buds swell, unless you already made a leaf curl application in the fall. If leaf curl was severe in your peach and nectarine blocks in 2004, and you made your fall fungicide application to control the disease for 2005, a spring fungicide application may be needed to ensure complete disease control. In orchards where careful monitoring is practiced and where leaf curl has not been present for two or more years, this spray can be omitted until the disease begins to recur. For best control of peach leaf curl, make a dilute application of fungicide under calm conditions, making sure to cover each bud thoroughly. Using one of the fixed coppers for the leaf curl spray may help suppress bacterial spot in blocks where this disease is a problem. See page 77 of the 2004 Spray Bulletin for fungicides and rates of application.

Phytophthora root rot can be managed with mefanoxam (Ridomil Gold EC and Ridomil 5G) and will aid in the control of crown, collar, and other root rots caused by Phytophthora spp. on both bearing and non-bearing apple trees. Ridomil 5G can be used in nonbearing orchards only. Applications should be made on a preventative schedule before symptoms appear, especially in orchards where conditions are favorable for disease development. Ridomil should not be expected to revitalize trees showing moderate to severe disease symptoms. Ridomil is not registered for use as a preplanting dip treatment. For best results, make one application at the time of planting or in the spring before growth starts. Make another application in the fall after harvest. Ridomil is highly specific and will not control other agents causing similar tree decline symptoms, including but not limited to other fungal root rots, graft union necrosis (tomato ringspot virus) and vole damage.

Apple scab urea application: A spray of 5% solution of urea (46-0-0) in water may be applied to apple leaves on the ground if this was not done in the autumn (42 lb. urea in 100 gal. water, applied at 100 gallons/acre). The nitrogen will hasten leaf litter decomposition and may result in reduced inoculum from the apple scab fungus. Moving leaves from under the trees to the row middles with a leaf blower and then shredding them with a flail mower is a good alternative to the urea spray for small acreages.

HORTICULTURE

Richard Zimmerman had double knee-replacement surgery on January 10.  He is recuperating well and receives therapy three times a week.  His horticultural contributions will resume in the next issue of this newsletter.  Cards may be sent to him at WVU-KTFREC, P. O. Box 609, Kearneysville, WV 25430



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West Virginia Fruit School - 2005:
Challenges and Opportunities for IPM in Fruit Production


March 9, 2005
Coca Cola Building
Romney, W. Va.

Morning                                     Presiding: Robert Cheves

8:00                Registration - $15.00 by March 1; $20.00 on site
                        (covers lunch, refreshments and speaker travel expenses)

8:30                West Virginia State Horticultural Society President's Address -
                        Karen Burkhart, Incoming President

8:45                Measuring the Impact of Fruit IPM -
                        Bill Coli, Statewide IPM Coordinator, University of Massachusetts

9:30                It Takes a Horticulturist to Make IPM Work -
                        Curt Rom, Horticulturist, University of Arkansas

10:15              Refreshment Break

10:30              An IPM Approach for Orchard Floor Management  - 
                        Jeff Derr, Weed Scientist, Virginia Tech

11:00              Management of Bramble Diseases -
                        Mike Ellis, Plant Pathologist, Ohio State University, OARDC

11:30              Weed Management in Small Fruits -
                        Jeff Derr, Weed Scientist, Virginia Tech

12:00              Catered Lunch

Afternoon                                 

  1:00              An IPM Program for Summer Diseases of Apple -
                        Keith Yoder, Plant Pathologist, Virginia Tech

  1:45              Managing Replant Disease in Peaches -
                        John Halbrendt, Nematologist, Penn State Fruit Research & Extension Center

  2:15              Refreshment Break

  2:30              Mating Disruption in Tree Fruit:  What's Available, How to use it, and Performance in Eastern Orchards -
                        Larry Hull, Entomologist, Penn State Fruit Research & Extension Center

  3:15              A Reduced-Risk Pest Management Program for Apple and Peach:  2004 RAMP Results -
                        Peter Shearer, Entomologist, Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Center
                        Henry Hogmire, Entomologist, WVU Tree Fruit Research & Education Center

  4:15              Distribution of Attendance Form for Pesticide Applicator Recertification

---------------------------------------------------

                         ROMNEY FRUIT SCHOOL REGISTRATION FORM

                  Name:_________________________________________________________________

      Address:________________________________________Phone:__________________

                            March 9 Romney Fruit School___________@ $15.00 ea. = ____________

Please return this form along with a check payable to WVSHS by March 1 to Robert Cheves, 
Hampshire County Extension Office,
PO Box 1880, Romney, WV 26757-1880.



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West Virginia Fruit School - 2005:
Challenges and Opportunities for IPM in Fruit Production


March 10, 2005
WVU Tree Fruit Research and Education Center
Kearneysville, W. Va.

Morning                                     Presiding: Henry Hogmire

8:00                Registration - $15.00 by March 1; $20.00 on site
                        (covers lunch, refreshments and speaker travel expenses)

8:30                West Virginia State Horticultural Society Annual Business Meeting: Part I -
                        George Behling, Outgoing President              

8:40                West Virginia State Horticultural Society President's Address -
                        Karen Burkhart, Incoming President

8:50                Measuring the Impact of Fruit IPM -
                        Bill Coli, Statewide IPM Coordinator, University of Massachusetts

9:30                It Takes a Horticulturist to Make IPM Work -
                        Curt Rom, Horticulturist, University of Arkansas

10:15              Refreshment Break

10:30              An IPM Approach for Orchard Floor Management  - 
                        Jeff Derr, Weed Scientist, Virginia Tech

11:00              Management of Bramble Diseases -
                        Mike Ellis, Plant Pathologist, Ohio State University, OARDC

11:30              Weed Management in Small Fruits -
                        Jeff Derr, Weed Scientist, Virginia Tech

12:00              Catered Lunch

Afternoon                                   Presiding:  Rakesh Chandran              

  1:00              An IPM Program for Summer Diseases of Apple -
                        Keith Yoder, Plant Pathologist, Virginia Tech

  1:45              Managing Replant Disease in Peaches -
                        John Halbrendt, Nematologist, Penn State Fruit Research & Extension Center

  2:15              Refreshment Break

  2:30              Mating Disruption in Tree Fruit:  What's Available, How to use it, and Performance in Eastern Orchards -
                        Larry Hull, Entomologist, Penn State Fruit Research & Extension Center

  3:15              A Reduced-Risk Pest Management Program for Apple and Peach:  2004 RAMP Results -
                        Peter Shearer, Entomologist, Rutgers Agricultural Research & Extension Center
                        Henry Hogmire, Entomologist, WVU Tree Fruit Research & Education Center

  4:15              West Virginia State Horticultural Society Annual Business Meeting: Part II -
                        Karen Burkhart, President

  4:30              Distribution of Attendance Form for Pesticide Applicator Recertification

---------------------------------------------------  

                   
    
KEARNEYSVILLE FRUIT SCHOOL REGISTRATION FORM  

Name:_________________________________________________________________

Address:________________________________________Phone:__________________

    March 10 Kearneysville Fruit School___________@ $15.00 ea. = ____________

Please return this form along with a check by March 1 payable to WVSHS, PO Box 1048, Ranson, WV 25438.


READ THE LABEL CAREFULLY AND USE THE CHEMICALS IN ACCORDANCE WITH LABEL CAUTIONS, WARNING AND DIRECTIONS. REQUEST A MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS) FROM THE MANUFACTURER FOR EACH PRODUCT YOU USE.

Trade and brand names are used only for the purpose of information, and the West Virginia University Extension Service does not guarantee nor warrant the standard of the product, nor does it imply approval of the product to the exclusion of others which may also be suitable. The West Virginia University Extension service assumes no responsibility in the use of hazardous chemicals.

Individuals requesting an accommodation at an Extension Meeting because of a disability should contact one of the Specialists at the WVU Tree Fruit Research and Education Center at 304-876-6353 at least 5 days prior to the meeting date.


Helping you put knowledge to work


WEST VIRGINIA UNIVERSITY
TREE FRUIT RESEARCH AND EDUCATION CENTER
P. O. BOX 609
KEARNEYSVILLE, WV 25430-0609
PHONE:  304-876-6353
FAX:  304-876-6034
WEB:  www.caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/wvufarm1.html

The West Virginia University Cooperative Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, West Virginia County
Boards of Education and County Commissions Cooperating.  Equal Opportunity / Affirmative Action Institution


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