Native Shrubs ... in wildlife landscaping
West Virginia Native Plant Society
West Virginia Nongame Wildlife Program
Wild Raisin (Appalachian Tea) - Viburnum cassinoides
Nannyberry (Sheepberry) - V. lentago
Rusty-Black Haw (Southern Black Haw) - V. rufidulum
Roughish Arrowwood - V. dentatum
Smooth Arrowwood - V. recognitum
Cranberrytree (American Cranberrybush) - V. trilobum
|Viburnum Family - Shrubs or small trees, deciduous, opposite, simple leaves that have smooth, toothed or lobed edges. White clusters of rounded or flat-topped flowers that mature into fruits (drupes) of flesh enclosing a single stonelike seed. Fruits mature in late summer or fall.|
|Form:||Wild Raisin - Dense or
straggling shrub to 15 feet tall with arching branches.
Nannyberry - Small tree or shrub to 25 feet tall.
Rusty Black Haw - Small tree or shrub to 30 feet tall with spreading stems.
Roughish Arrowwood - Dense shrub to 10 feet tall.
Smooth Arrowwood - Dense shrub to 15 feet tall with numerous slender straight stems ("arrow shafts").
Cranberrytree - Open, spreading shrub to 15 feet tall.
|Bark and Twigs:||Nannyberry - Bright red
branchlets, buds covered by 2 scales.
Rusty Black Haw - Bark blackish, twigs densely red-brown and scurfy.
Roughish Arrowwood - Twigs velvety hairy.
Smooth Arrowwood - Twigs hairless.
|Leaves:||Wild Raisin - Roundish
to oval, smooth margins, turn to crimson or purple in
Nannyberry - Pointed tips, sharply toothed margins, bright shiny green and smooth above, turn to purple-red in fall.
Rusty Black Haw - Leaf oval in shape, leathery, with fine teeth on margins. Densely red-brown scurfy beneath and red dotted.
Roughish Arrowwood - Coarsely toothed margins, prominent veins, densely soft hairy below, bright scurfy beneath and red dotted.
Smooth Arrowwood - Roundish with coarsely toothed margins, prominent veins, smooth above and below, bright red leaves in autumn.
Cranberrytree - Deeply 3-lobed, remains green or turns slightly yellow or red-purple in autumn.
|Flowers & Fruit:||Wild Raisin - Creamy,
white, flat-topped clusters of flowers in June or July
maturing to showy fruits that are pink at first but
become blue-black in early autumn.
Nannyberry - Similar clusters to Wild Raisin that flower earlier (May-June) and flower clusters are not stalked. Fruits also similar.
Rusty Black Haw - Small white clusters in April-May, flowers not showy.
Roughish Arrowwood - Flowers in showy, creamy white, flattened clusters (May-June). Fruits round and blue (Aug.-Nov.).
Smooth Arrowwood - Flowers in showy, white clusters on a long stalk (May-June). Fruits round, blue-black in color.
Cranberrytree - Flowers in showy, white clusters with an outside border of larger sterile flowers (May-July). Fruits are bright red, tart, and have a musky odor.
Compiled by: William N. Grafton, naturalist, botanist and wildlife specialist, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia
Written by West Virginia Native Plant Society members and jointly published with the WV Nongame Program
Illustration from Flora of West Virginia, Strausbaugh and Core