Teaching Module on Brazil
Course Title: Latin American Culture and Civilization
( Taught in Spanish for students majoring in Spanish)
West Virginia University
The geography of Brazil.
A historical background of the Discovery, Conquest and Colonization of Brazil by the Portuguese Crown.
The Tordesillas Treaty of 1494 which divided the New World between Spain and Portugal.
The discovery of Brazil by Pedro Alvares Cabral in 1500.
The early importance of "Pao brasil" (dye wood) in the European textile industry.
Creation and implementation of the hereditary system of Capitanias.. 1532-34.
Foundation of Antarctic France in Rio de Janeiro,1555.
The cultural and political roles of the Jesuits priests Jose de Anchieta and Manoel de Noriega.
The absence of strong and rich Indian cultures in Brazil.
The slave trade and its role on the sugar and tobacco plantations.
The union of the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies under Philip II, 1580.
The expulsion of the French population from Maranhao, 1615.
The Dutch attack against Salvador, the colonial capital, 1624.
The Bandeirantes war against the black State of Palmares, 1687-95.
The emergence of Mamelucos (mixed blood) and their role in exploring the interior of Brazil.
The discovery of gold and diamond mines in Minas Girais, Mato Grosso and Goias l695-97.
The foundation of the Sacramento colony in Uruguay, 1680.
The faziendas emergency and cattle raising.
The colonial social pyramid: Portuguese, Mozambos, Mamelucos, Mulatoes, Negroes and Indians.
The Inconfidencia uprising led by Tiradentes, 1789
The establishment of the Portuguese royal family in Rio under Dom Joao, 1808
The Pernambucan Republican revolt, 1817.
The return of Dom Joao VI to Portugal, 1821.
The Declaration of Independence, 1822 The abdication of the Emperor, 1831.
The war against Argentina and the independence of Uruguay under Dom Pedro I,1825-28.
The Farrapos war, 1835.
Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil.
The beginning of the Coffee plantations and their importance in the Brazilian agricultural economy.
Liberal revolt in Minas Gerais, 1842.
The prohibition of slave trade and the implementation of the landowning legislation, 1850.
The three nations war (Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay) against Paraguay, 1864.
The abolition of slavery, 1888.
The proclamation of the Republic, 1889.
The First Republican Constitution.
The beginning of industrialization in Brazil.
The development of coffee and rubber plantations at the beginning of the century.
The Brazilian- Bolivian Petropolis treaty and the incorporation of the Acre territory to Brazil, 1903.
Inauguration of the First Workers' Federation, 1906.
Election of Hermes da Fonseca as President of Brazil, 1910.
Transition from the Old Republic to the New State.
Celebration of the Modern Art Week, 1922.
The Foundation of the Communist Party.
The revolt against the Old Republic under Getuho Vargas leadership, 1930.
The New Constitution ,1934.
Coup D'Etat led by Getuho Vargas and the Foundation of the New State (Estado Novo), 1937
The creation of the National Petroleum Council, 1938
The implementation of the minimal wage,1940
Getuho Vargas is ousted by the Armed Forces, 1945
Eurico Gaspar Dutra is elected President of Brazil, 1946
The Proclamation of the New Constitution, 1946
Election of Getuho Vargas as President, 1951
Suicide of Getuho Vargas, 1954
Election of Juscelino Kubitschek,1956
8eginning of the construction of Brazilia ,1957
Inauguration of Brazilia as Capital of Brazil, 1960
Election of Janio Quad ros as President, 1960
Resignation of Jano Quadros as President after six months of his inauguration, 1961
Military Coup. March 31,1964
Suspension of the Political Parties, 1965
Campaign for Free elections, 1983
Election of Tancredo Neves as President of Brazil, 1984
Death of Tancredo Neves: Jose Sarney, President, 1985
The Cruzado Plans I and II to face the economic crisis, 1986
The assassination of Chico Medes, environmental leader, l98
The beginning of Collor Presidency, 1990
Impeachment of President Collor and Presidency of Itamar Franco, 1992
Election of Fernando Henrique Cardoso, 1995
The Financial Crisis and the "Real Plan", 1995
Re-election of Henrique Cardoso, 1998
A Survey of the Brazilian Literature
Jose de Anchieta and the Colonial Literature
Benito Texeira and Gregono de Matos: the Baroque period
Claudio Manuel Da Costa, Alvarenga Peixoto: the Neoclassic period
Goncalves de Magallaes, Casimiro de Abreu, Manuel A. de Almeida: the Romantic period
Machado de Assis, Adolfo Caminha, Alfonso Arinos: the Realism
Alphonsus de Guimarais, Farias Brito: the Symbolist period
Euclides da Cunha, Mario de Andrade, Plinio Salgado, Paulo Prado: the Modernist period
Raquel de Queiroz, Jorge Amado, Enrico Verissimo, Clarice Lispector, Joao Guimaraes Rosa, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Fernando Sabino, Paulo Mendes Campos, Rachel de Queiroz, Rubem Braga: Contemporary narrative
Mauro Mota, Domingo Carvaiho da Silva, Darcy Damaseno, Ledo Ivo, Jose Alcides Pinto, Jose Santiago Naud, Renata Pallotini, Haroldo dew Campos, Mario Chamie, Alfonso Avila, Mario Sampaio: Contemporary poetry.
The Protection of the Environment and a sustainable development
Three main regions:
The Amazonian Forest
Projects to be discussed:
The Mata Atlantica Forest
The Depollution of Guanabara Bay
The Housing demand and the Favela's transformation
The SIPAN (Protection of the Amazonian region)
The SIVAN (System of surveillance of the Amazonia
Garbage collection, green exchange and recycling in Curitiba.
The Educational Campaign
The role of Henrique Cardoso's government in the transformation of Brazil
The role of the Armed Forces in Brazil
Land tenure and agrarian reform.
The transformation of Brazilian Society:
Changes in the family structure
The Role of Women in contemporary Brazil
The Labor Movement
The Catholic Church and the presence of other churches
The Theology of Liberation
Immigration currents in Brazil
The globalization of the economy
The MercoSur trade treaty
Machismo in Brazilian society.
Soccer (Futbol) as a national phenomena.
The Media and Telebras (Brazilian T.V)
Carnivals, Samba and popular music.
Methodology to follow:
Obviously such a list of different topics would be impossible to cover in three weeks. The topics are given for the students to become familiar with the history and the development of Brazil and for them to choose a topic for an oral presentation or a written paper.
In each class, I will highlight and talk about the most important topics. When available, videos and documentaries on Brazil will be shown. Every students is supposed to research a selected topic and to present it in class for discussion. Frequent exams and presentation of a term paper are required.
Native speakers from Brazil will be invited to visit our classes and to give an informal presentation to the class.
Assignments on current events such as the recent presidential elections or the impact
of the global financial crisis on the Brazilian economy will be given.
Students will be asked to check on the Internet for recent developments in Brazil which will merit a discussion in our classes.
The second half of the XXth century has been impacted by an intense process of changes that affect the social, economic, political and geographical structures of society which take place in a scenario of growing conditions of degradation and deterioration of the environment.
These social unbalances are more acute in countries such as Brazil due to the rapid growing of the population and the demand on natural resources to assure their survival.
To control these unbalances a sound policy of achieving a sustainable development is a priority in Brazil today. On how the Brazilian government and the Brazilian people tackle this dilemma will decide the future of this important and vital region of South America.
The need to find better ways of economic development to reestablish the balance between man and nature through a new strategy centered on the protection of the environment and on achieving a sustainable development. This must be a priority of the government of Brazil. Which implies promotion of a deep change on the behavior and the mentality of all sectors of society in order to achieve the goals set.
Fortunately, in the last decades changes have taken place in Brazil with the active participation of governmental agencies, private enterprises and non- government agencies with the support of the general population to protect the environment while achieving a sustainable development.
In this module we will discuss the most important projects being implemented in Brazil today and we will relate their impact in the country and the region.
1) The Atlantic Rain Forest (Mata Atlantica).
This project refers to the protection and the recovery of the rain forest alongside the Atlantic coast of Brazil which was on its way to extinction. In this region many acres of forest have been cut to give way to cattle raising, agricultural production and industrial development projects. As a result, the water sources needed have been drastically reduced and the few rivers and water reservoirs in the region are highly contaminated.
Today, there is a governmental agency with its main office in Sao Paulo which is coordinating a national effort to reforest the lost lands, to forbid future deforestation and to clean the water resources available.This agency is actively working with non-profit organizations and local communities in educating the population by distributing written information and by giving presentations to audiences in the region Our visit to the affected area and seeing the corrective treatment applied to the contaminated rivers and affluents gave us high hopes that the problem is under control.
Similar cases in Latin America can be focused such as the tourist areas of Cartagena de Indias in Colombia, Acapulco, Veracruz and Puerto Vallarta in Mexico and In capital cities such as Lima, Mexico City, Caracas, Santiago and Bogota, calling the attention to our students about this situation on our continent.
2) The protection and surveillance of the Amazonian region.
We all know that the Amazonian region is the largest forest in the world and that in the last three decades this region has suffered an extensive damage due to the intense exploitation by national and multinational companies in the exporting of the wood industry. This is known as the Asian effect since many of these companies used to operate in Asia and the Far East with the final result of the deforestation of such regions.
New cattle raising and agricultural projects established to satisfy the growing demands of the cities like Manaus ( pop. 1,200.000) have made the problem much more acute due also to the contamination caused by their dwellers.
Two projects have been established to tackle these problems:
SIVAM (Sistema de Vigilancia da Amazonia), Surveillance System of the Amazonia. This project covers an area of 5,200,000 squared km, equivalent to 61% of the Brazilian territory, and 16.5 million inhabitants equivalent to 12% of the national population.
This region encompasses 1/3 of the tropical forest in the planet and the largest river water basin in the world.
SIVAM concentrates its efforts on four main fronts: environment monitoring; the use of land; surveillance though satellite and radar stations, and fire control with the main goal of protecting the Amazonia and achieving a sustainable development. (Desenvolvimiento sustentavel)
SIPAM (Protection System of the Amazonia) focuses on the following aspects:
Control of occupation and use of the land
Surveillance and control of the national borders
Protection of lands occupied by Indians
Identification and control of illegal activities
Prevention and control of endemic and epidemic diseases
Support and control of navigation routes
In our classes we will emphasize how the above situations are present in all Latin American countries and the imperative need of coming out with sound solutions to them as a way to assure a sustainable development.
Teaching materials, notebooks, flyers, calendars, maps, teacher's guides, etc. are distributed free of charge to the schools of the regions in order to make the young generation aware of the importance of their participation in the solution of these problems.
Both projects are federal funded ones and the Air Force cooperates actively in the surveillance of the region and protection of the jungle.
3) The erradication and transformation of Favelas (shanty towns)
In Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Recife, Manaus and, by extension, any large city in Brazil the housing scarcity and deterioration is a serious urban problem due to the demand of an ever growing population.
Just in Rio de Janeiro there are more than six hundred neighborhoods invaded by favela dwellers. In the same city of eight million people, close to one million live on the streets.
In Sao Paulo we visited favelas where families of 8 or more were crowded in two rooms with no electricity, running water or sewer service. The kids have little chances of attending school and there is a high rate of teenage pregnancy and drug addiction.
The Federal project we visited is progressing well. First, they make a census of the favela's dwellers and their needs. Then they have a neighborhood organization which coordinates their petitions to the governmental agency. Nearby the favela, new high-rise housing projects are being built and those families who have a minimum income are selected to move into the new apartments which are not completely finished so the families will take care of finishing them. There is not a down payment to buy them and the monthly payment is a small percentage of their
income. The only drawback I noticed was the lack of recreational areas and nearby
schooling facilities. In my classes I will relate this experience to my students calling their attention to how common this problem is in all medium sized and major cities in Latin America which are known as tugurios, callampas and poblaciones piratas. This urban problem creates numerous ones such as drug trafficking, violence, alcoholism, insecurity, unemployment, crimes and urban guerrilla warfare.
4) The depollution of Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro.
Being Rio a densily populated city and its beaches the most popular ones in Brazil, the surrounding bay of Guanabara is highly polluted and contaminated. Human waste has been dumped into the bay for dacades and it has caused many health problems. The Federal and Local governments are working hard in cleaning this area. New sewer treatment plants and miles of sewer lines have been built to collect waste and contaminated waters so they can be emptied after been treated five miles away into the sea.
An agressive educational campaign has been under progress for several years and so far, the results are very positive as it can be seen in the sanitary improvements of the Alegria, Sarapui and Pavuna basins.
The depollution of the Guanabara Bay is the largest social-environmental project being developed in Latin America, and one of the largest in the world in this kind. Water supply for the region will be improved through the construction of 10 reservoirs, 452 Km of distribution systems, 16 km of water pipelines and 45,900 home connections.
New sanitary dumps, sanitary landfills and garbage reclycling and
composting plants are being also constructed. The projects seems to be a success.
5) Garbage collection and recycling projects in Curitiba.
Curitiba, a very beautiful and clean city in South East Brazil has been a model to follow in the country regarding the protection of the environment and the achievement of a sustainable development. Thanks to the leadership of a former Mayor and now Governor of the state, and the full participation of the people, Curitiba is today the cleanest city in Brazil.
First, they have implemented for several years an excelent system of garbage collection which covers the whole city and its surroundings. Secondly, they have developed an extraordinary educational campaign that starts at the elementary school level where children and secondary school students are incorporated in monitoring programs of the environment. We visited one elementary school where they have formed environmental brigades with students as environmental agents who check on daily routines the quality of the water in the nearby streams and the presence of pollutants in the area.
We met them in their classes and we looked at their written projects; we talked to the teachers who explained to us the methods they follow to coordinate these projects. We accompanied these brigades to see their collection of data and how it was recorded. We were highly impressed by their work and dedication to it.
Thirdly, we went to the outskirts of the city where we saw mobile units parked at strategic sites where people could walk in and watch video programs about contamination and pollution topics. Inside the mobile units there were posters and free educational materials to take to their homes. The documentaries were projected at different locations and times during the day to cover the most affected areas of the city.
Of special interest was our visit to the green exchange market where trucks full of agricultural products were parked at different locations for people to exchange recyclable items for fruits, vegetables and grains.
It was a touching and inspiring experience to see long lines of people of all ages carrying old household implements, newspapers, aluminum cans, plastics, old refrigerators and stoves, etc to be exchange for agricultural products. We also paid a visit to the recycling plant where we listened to the presentation of a young engineer who talk to us about the future of recycling as a profitable industry at the same time it solves a social and environmental problem. All of the workers in this plant were former alcoholics who were also working on their own recuperation of alcohol consumption. At the end of the visit we were taken to the Museum of Garbage, the only one in the world, where they collect unique items that people discarded as garbage: books, electric equipment, family portraits, framed diplomas, sewing machines, paintings and other unique valuables.
When talking about the Brazilian contemporary society in my classes I will convey to my students the importance of the community involvement in solving common problems and in keeping a clean environment.
6) Other important activities during our trip to Brazil and their impact in my teaching.
Besides the above discussed specific projects, our group had a unique opportunity of meeting with local authorities, non-government organizations, journalists and media agents, rural leaders and project directors in several cities.
In Recife we visited a non-traditional medicines laboratory where they are studying the curative power of native plants, where local experts grow such plants and process them into different herbal medicines.
We visited the water reservoir for the Recife region where thanks to federal and local efforts the water sources are being cleaned and protected.
In the outskirts of Manaus we visited an animal sanctuarium where monkeys, snakes and birds on via of extinction are being protected.
In Brazilia we received a lot of information by attending several meetings with high federal officers who plan, execute and control environmental projects all around the country.
Before visiting Brazil for my first time I covered in my classes the Brazilian society and its development from a historical point of view, giving emphasis to the topics of the discovery, the conquest and colonization by the Portuguese and the political and historical events after the independence from Portugal.
After my visit to five major cities and regions of Brazil, I feel better prepared to cover other pertinent and contemporary topics about the Brazilian society, the Environment and their efforts to achieve a sustainable development. I will relate each of these experience in my classes to my students and I will call their attention to the fact that the problems and challanges that Brazil faces today are common in all Latin American countries.
I brought with me plenty of teaching materials and publications dealing with these topics which I plan to share with my students asking them to reflect about what is being implemented in Brazil in comparison to what is being done in the States.
I will ask my students to prepare and to present in class oral and written reports so all the others could benefit of their research.
Thanks to the fact that a good number of Brazilian students are enrolled in our University, I have already invited some of them to talk about their country to our students.
Since I teach courses on Latin American Culture and Civilization and Literatures, while in Brazil, I was able to buy plenty of books on the history and the literature of Brazil.
I plan to include in my literature classes novelists and poets that I never taught before; I brought With me Brazilian portuguese grammar books and dictionaries which will be of great help if in the future we offer portuguese classes in our Department of Foreign Languages.
Obviously Brazil is only one of the 22 countries I have to cover in my course on Latin American Culture and Civilization therefore, I have to limit my classes about Brazil to a maximum of three weeks being the Environment and the achieving of a Sustainable Development two of the main contemporary topics to be covered.
Selected General Bibliography:
Appleby, David P. The Music of Brazil. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983.
Baer, Werner. The Brazilian Economy: Growth and Development. New York, Praeger Publishers, 1991.
Bacha, Edmar L. and Herbert S. Klein, ends. Social Change in Brazil 1945-1985: Incomplete Transition (Albuquerque : University of New Mexico Press, 1989).
Bakianoff, Eric, N. New Perspectives of Brazil (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 1966).
Bethel, Leslie, ed. Colonial Brazil, London-New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Bethel, Leslie, ed. Brazil:Empire and First Republic, 1822-1930, London-New York, Cambridge University Press, 1989.
Brazil: A Country Study. (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1982).
Bruneau, Thomas C and Philippe Faucher, Authoritarian Capitalism: Brazil' s Contemporary Political and Economic Development (Boulder, CO: West View Press,1981.
Coniff, Michael L. Urban Politics in Brazil: The Rise of Populism, 1925-1945. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh Press, 1981.
Coniff, Michael L, and Frank D. McCann, ends. Modern Brazil: Elites and Masses in Historical Perspective. Lincoln; university of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Da Costa, E.V. The Brazilian Empire: Myths and Histories. Chicago : Chicago University Press, 1986.
Dean, Warren. Brazil and the Struggle for Rubber: A Study in Environmental History, London-New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Dulles, John W.F. Brazilian Communism, 1935-1945. Repression During World Upheaval. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983.
Dutra, Francis A. A Guide to the History of Brazil, 1500-1822. Santa Barbara , ABC Clio Press, 1980.
Fontaine, Pierre-Michelle, ed. Race, Class, and Power in Brazil. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies, University of California, Los Angeles, 1985.
Foweraker, Joe. The Struggle for Land: A Political Economy of the Pioneer Frontier in Brazil from 1930 to the Present Day, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.
Freyre , Gilberto. The Masters and the Slaves, California University Press,1986.
Freyre, Gilberto. Order and Progress: Brazil from Monarchy to Republic. Los Angeles, Berkeley, University of California Press, 1986.
Goodman, David and Anthony Hall, ends. The Future of Amazonia: Destruction or Sustainable Development? (London: MacMillan and Company, 1990).
Haberly, David T., Three sad races: Racial Identity and National Consciousness in Brazilian Literature, Cambridge University Press, 1983.
Hayes, Robert A. The Armed Nation: The Brazilian Corporate Mystique. Tempe, Center for Latin American Studies, Arizona State University, 1988.
Hemming, John H., ed. Change in the Amazon Basin (Dover, NH: Manchester University Press, 1985).
Hewlett, Sylvia A. The Cruel Dilemmas of Development: Twentieth Century Brazil (New York: Basic Books, 1980).
Lang, James. Portuguese Brazil: The King's Plantation. New York, Academic Press, 1979.
Leff, Nathaniel H. Underdevelopment and Development in Brazil 2 vols., Winchester, Mass: Allen and Unwin, 1982.
Leff, Nathaniel H.. Economic Policy Making and Development in Brazil 1947-1964 (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1968.
Lewin, Linda. Politics and Parentela in Paraiba: A Case Study of Family-Based Oligarchy in Brazil, Princeton University Press, 1987.
Mahar, Dennis J. Government Politics and Deforestation in Brazil's Amazon Region (Washington DC: World Bank, 1989).
Mainwaring, Scott. The Catholic Church and Politics in Brazil, 1916-1985. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1986.
Mariz, Vasco. Figuras de Musica Brasileira Contemporanea. Brazilia: Editorial Universidade de Brasilia, 1970.
McDonough, Peter: Power and Ideology in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981.
Moran, Emiho F. Developing the Amazon. Bloomington: University of Indiana Press,1981.
Nunes Leal, Victor. Coronelismo (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977).
Popino E., Rollie. Brazil: The Land and the People (New York: Oxford University Press,1968).
Revkin, Andrew. The Burning Season: The Murder of Chico Mendes and the Fight for the Rain Forest (Boston: Houghton Miff un Company, 1990).
Roett, Riordan. Brazil: Politics in a Patrimonial Society. New York: Praeger, 1984.
Schneider, Ronald M. "Order and Progress" A Political History of Brazil (Boulder, CO Westview Press, 1991).
Smith, T, Lynn. Brazil: People and Institutions. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1972.
Stepan, Alfred, ed. Democratizing Brazil: Problems of Transition and Consolidation. London- New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.
Stepan, Alfred. Rethinking Military Politics: Brazil and the Southern Cone. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1988.
Topic, S. The Political Economy of the Brazilian State, 1889-1936. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1987.
Wagley, Charles. Amazon Town: A Study of Man in the Tropics (New York: Macmillan Company, 1953.
Weinstein, Barbara. The Amazon Rubber Boom, 1850-1920. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1983.
Wercester, Donald E. Brazil: From Colony to World Power. (New York: Scribner and Sons, 1973.
Films, documents and Internet sources.
"A Quiet Revolution", the role of Liberation Theology, The Cinema Guild, 1697 Broadway, NY, NY. 10019.
Brazil: The Vanishing Negro. University film libraries, San Diego State University, San Diego. CA.
The Brazilian Economy, http:www:fazenda.gov.br
"Miracles are not enough. Continuity and change in Religion." Las Americas Series.
"Capital sins: Authoritarianism and Democratization in Brazil." Las Americas Series.
Governo do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Program for Depollution of the Guanabara Bay.
(Secretaria de Estado de Obras e Servicios Publicos- SOS, May 97.
Nacif Xavier Helia, Desenvolvimento Economico Local e Meio Ambiente. Crescer com
Sustentabilidade, IBAM, 1988.
Rio on the Road: Agenda 21 in Sao Paulo's Daily Life. Sao Paulo State Environmental Secretariat, 1997.
Crespo, S. ef al. What Brazilian think of the environment, development and sustainability. Agenda 21, Brazil.
Brazilian Institute of Municipal Administration. Newsletter: http:/www.ibam.org.br
Agenda 21 Rio Newsletter. E-mail: email@example.com
Politica Nacional de Recursos Hidricos. Ministeno do Meio Ambiente dos Recursos Hidricos e da Amazonia Legal, Brasilia, 1997.
Integrating slums in Rio de Janeiro. Prefeitura da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro.
Urban Renaissance, Inter-American Development Bank, Washington, DC. 1997.
Atlantic Rain Forest, 1992. Fundacao SOS Mata Atlantica.
Informativo do Programa Voluntarios, AGIR Fax 011-853 8300 Sao Paulo
Latin American Culture and Civilization, Course
Spanish 292 A.
Dr. Pablo Gonzalez
Office :317B Ch.
Office Hours: M-T :1:30 to 4:00; Th. 3:45 to 4:30
Este curso consite en una visión panorámica de la cuitura y la civilización latainoamericanas desde sus orígenes hasta nuestros dias. Se pretende que al final del curso el estudiante tenga un conocimiento claro de la evolución de los valores de la sociedad latinoamericana, sus Ilmitaciones, sus alcances y sus objetivos.
Lectura total del texto: Latinoamerica, su civilización y su cultura, de E.Chang Rodríguez.
Participación activa en clase at discutir las lecturas, demostrando que se han leído debidamente. Hay que leer el libro en su totalidad aunque no se haga un cubrimiento completo de todos los capítulos en clase, pues habrá otros temas y otros materiales que no están en libro, los que se incluirán en los exámenes de evaluación.
La asistencia a clase es obilgatoria. Cada dos ausencias rebajarán Ia nota una letra en la caliticación final. No habrá exámenes supletorios.
Un reporte oral sobre un tema asignado 10%
Un reporte escrito, de 10 a 12 paginas, seleccionado de acuerdo con el profesor y que debe entregarse en la última clase 30%
Un examen de mitad de semestre (Septiembre 30) 30%
Un examen final (Diciembre 2) 30%
Itinerario del curso
Introducción. Nombres del continente. Hay una Latinoamerica?.La geografía y la gente. (p.1-32)
1 Las culturas de Mesoamerica:Olmecas, Aztecas y Mayas (33-42)
Video: Centinelas del silencio
8 Los Incas (42-52). Video: The land of the Incas
Conquista de México y America Central (53-63)
Conquista del Perú, Quito, Nueva Granada y Chile. (60-71)
15 El régimen colonial y su legado (72-87)
Brasil colonial (91-100)
Vida intelectual en la Colonia (103-119)
Video: Miracles are not enough. Continuity and change in Religion.
22 Guerras de la Independencia (123-128)
Simón Bolívar, Jose de San Martín, Bartolomé Hidalgo (128-138)
Septiembre 29 Brasil monárquico (141-154)
Video: Capital sins: Authoritarianism and Democratization
6 Mid-term exam
13 Los paises del Piata (157-168). Paraguay, Utuguay (168-177)
Video: The garden of the forking paths: Dilemmas of National Development
20 Los paises andinos meridionales (181-192) Chile, Peru, Ecuador (192-206)
Video: In women's Hands. The changing roles of women
27 Colombia. Venezuela (206-217)
Video: Get up, Stand up: Problems of Sovereignty ( Colombia, Jamaica, Panama)
10 La Revolución Mexicana (221-232). Guatemala y Honduras (235-244)
Salvador, Costa Rica y Panama (2~255)
Video: Fire in the Mind: Revolutions and Revolutionaries ( Salvador, Perú, México, Cuba y Nicaragua)
17 Las Antillas. Cuba (259-269).
República Dominicana. Puerto Rico. Haití. (269-288)
Autores representativos (291-315)
Video: Mirarors of the Heart. Race and Identity ( Bolivia, Haití, República Dominicana)
La arquitectura y las artes plásticas. La música.
La problemática cultural actual. (319-415)
Video:Continent on the Move: Migration and Urbanization
1 La presencia hispánica en los Estados Unidos
Video: The Latin American and Caribbean Presence in the U.S.
8 Examen Final. 4:00p.m.